**DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING VIVA Questions with Answers :-**

4. What do you meant by Gray level?

5. What do you meant by Color model?

6. List the hardware oriented color models?

7. What is Hue and saturation?

8. List the applications of color models?

9. What is Chromatic Adoption?

13. What are the steps involved in DIP?

14. What is recognition and Interpretation?

15. Specify the elements of DIP system?

16. List the categories of digital storage?

17. What are the types of light receptors?

18. Differentiate photopic and scotopic vision ?

19. How cones and rods are distributed in retina?

20. Define subjective brightness and brightness adaptation?

22. What is meant by mach band effect?

23. What is simultaneous contrast?

24. What is meant by illumination and reflectance?

26. Define sampling and quantization?

30. What Are The Properties Of Haar Transform?

- Haar transform is real and orthogonal.
- Haar transform is a very fast transform
- Haar transform has very poor energy compaction for images
- The basic vectors of Haar matrix sequency ordered.

**31. What Are The Properties Of Slant Transform?**

- Slant transform is real and orthogonal.
- Slant transform is a fast transform
- Slant transform has very good energy compaction for images
- The basic vectors of Slant matrix are not sequency ordered.

**32. Define Of Kl Transform?**

KL Transform is an optimal in the sense that it minimizes the mean square error between the vectors X and their approximations X^. Due to this idea of using the Eigenvectors corresponding to largest Eigen values. It is also known as principal component transform.

**33. Justify That Klt Is An Optimal Transform?**

Since mean square error of reconstructed image and original image is minimum and the mean value of transformed image is zero so that uncorrelated.

**34. Explain The Term Digital Image?**

The digital image is an array of real or complex numbers that is represented by a finite no of bits.

**35. Write Any Four Applications Of Dip?**

- Remote sensing
- Image transmission and storage for business application
- Medical imaging
- Astronomy

**36. What Is The Effect Of Mach Band Pattern?**

The intensity or the brightness pattern perceive a darker stribe in region D and brighter stribe in region B.This effect is called Mach band pattern or effect.

**37. Write Down The Properties Of 2d Fourier Transform?**

- Separability
- Translation
- Periodicity and Conjugate property
- Rotation
- Distributivity and scaling
- Average value
- Convolution and Correlation
- Laplacian

**38.Obtain The Hadamard Transformation For N = 4?**

N = 4 = 2n

=> n = 2

**39. Write Down The Properties Of Haar Transform?**

- Real and orthogonal
- Very fast transform
- Basis vectors are sequentially ordered
- Has fair energy compaction for image
- Useful in feature extraction,image coding and image analysis problem

**40. What Is Image Enhancement?**

Image enhancement is to process an image so that the output is more suitable for specific application.

**41. Name The Categories Of Image Enhancement And Explain?**

The categories of Image Enhancement are

- Spatial domain
- Frequency domain Spatial domain: It refers to the image plane, itself and it is based on direct manipulation of pixels of an image.
- Frequency domain techniques are based on modifying the Fourier transform of an image.

**42. What Do You Mean By Point Processing?**

Image enhancement at any Point in an image depends only on the gray level at that point is often referred to as Point processing.

**43. Explain Mask Or Kernels?**

A Mask is a small two-dimensional array, in which the value of the mask coefficient determines the nature of the process, such as image sharpening.

**44. What Is Image Negatives?**

The negative of an image with gray levels in the range [0, L-1] is obtained by using the negative transformation, which is given by the expression.

s = L-1-r

Where s is output pixel.

r is input pixel.

**45. Define Histogram?**

The histogram of a digital image with gray levels in the range [0, L-1] is a discrete function h (rk) = nk, where rk is the kth gray level and nk is the number of pixels in the image having gray level rk.

**46. Define Derivative Filter?**

For a function f (x, y), the gradient f at co-ordinate (x, y) is defined as the

vector_f = _f/_x

_f/_y

_f = mag (_f) = {[(_f/_x) 2 +(_f/_y) 2 ]} ½

**47. Explain Spatial Filtering?**

Spatial filtering is the process of moving the filter mask from point to point in an image. For linear spatial filter, the response is given by a sum of products of the filter coefficients, and the corresponding image pixels in the area spanned by the filter mask.

**48. Define Averaging Filters?**

The output of a smoothing, linear spatial filter is the average of the pixels contain in the neighborhood of the filter mask. These filters are called averaging filters.

**49. What Is A Median Filter?**

The median filter replaces the value of a pixel by the median of the gray levels in the neighborhood of that pixel.

**50. What Is Maximum Filter And Minimum Filter?**

The 100th percentile is maximum filter is used in finding brightest points in an image. The 0th percentile filter is minimum filter used for finding darkest points in an image.