SURVEYING Interview Questions :-
1. What is the principal of Surveying?
If you have studied the Surveying or if you are still studying, then this is the one of the first question which you should know. When ever you have to do any kind of survey you have to do it from whole to parts. It is the first principle of Surveying. Initially main control points are established with very high accuracy at the far distances to cover whole the area and then using these points as the reference points you establish the secondary and tertiary control points.
Second principle of Surveying which you should know is that any point can be established or located precisely with reference to a minimum of two another reference points. That means you need at least two reference points to locate one another point.
2. What is the principal of chaining?
You must know that if you have to do the survey only with the help of chaining then it is done by triangulation. You have to divide the area into a numbers of triangles and measure its sides with the chain or tape.
3. What is the height of a ranging rod and what is its diameter?
I think you will be rarely asked this question but putting a variety of ammunition always helps. Generally the height of a ranging rod is 2.4m but it may be varied up to 6m and its diameter is generally 1 inch. There are strips in red and white or red and yellow in the longitudinal direction which are generally 1ft length(30.5cm).
4. What is the purpose of a level?
You know that level can be used for the levelling or sometimes for contouring too. So the basic purpose of a level is to provide a horizontal line of sight.
5. What is the least count of a Theodolite?
You have to measure the horizontal and vertical angles using the Theodolite, so you must know that least count is 10″ to 20″ (seconds) for a vernier theodolite but for a micro-meter theodolite least count may be as small as 0.l” .
6. What are the sources of local attraction in Surveying?
First of all you must know that this term is related to the compass survey. Sometimes when you are doing the compass survey at places where there are materials which attract a magnetic needle of the compass, the magnetic needle fails to show the magnetic North accurately due to the attraction forces of these materials and therefore it will be deflected from true magnetic meridian.
It is important for you to know such materials which, may cause this error, right? This material can be a chain, a wrist band, a ring in your finger, belt tide to your trouser, a hair band, a nearby electric pole or anything which attracts a magnet, so it might be needed for you know about magnets too.
1. What is Surveying?
Surveying is an art of making measurements on as will determine the relative position of different points on the surface of the earth.
2. What is Leveling?
Levelling is the art of determining and representing the relative heights or elevations of different points on the surface of earth.
3. Objective and Uses of Surveying?
As stated in the definition, object of surveying is to show relative positions of various objects of an area on paper and produce plan or map of that area.
Various uses of surveying are listed below:
- Plans prepared to record property lines of private, public and government lands help in avoiding unnecessary controversies.
- Maps prepared for marking boundaries of countries, states, districts etc., avoid disputes.
- Locality plans help in identifying location of houses and offices in the area.
- Road maps help travellers and tourist.
- Topographic maps showing natural features like rivers, streams, hills, forests help in planning irrigation projects and flood control measures.
- For planning and estimating project works like roads, bridges, railways, airports, water supply and waste water disposal surveying is required.
- Marine and hydrographic survey helps in planning navigation routes and harbours.
- Military survey is required for strategic planning.
- Mine surveys are required for exploring minearl wealth.
- Geological surveys are necessary for determining different strata in the earth crust so that proper location is found for reservoirs.
- Archeological surveys are useful for unearthing relics of antiquity.
- Astronomical survey helps in the study of movements of planets and for calculating local and standard times.
4. Methods of Surveying?
- Topographic Map
- Cadastral Map
- Engineering Map
- Military Map
- Contour Map
- Geological Map
- Archeological Map
6. General Principle of Surveying?
The general principles of surveying are:
1. To work from the whole to the part
2. To locate a new station by at least two measurements (linear or angular) from fixed reference points.
According to the first principle, the whole area is first enclosed by main stations (i.e. Controlling stations) and main survey lines (i.e. controlling lines). The area is then divided into a number of parts by forming well conditioned triangles. A nearly equilateral triangle is considered to be the best well-conditioned triangle.The main survey lines are measured very accurately with a standard chain. Then the sides of the triangles are measured. The purpose of this process of working is to prevent accumulation of error. During the procedure, if there is any error in the measurement of any side of a triangle, then it will not affect the whole work. The error can always be detected and eliminated.
According to the second principle, the new stations should always be fixed by at least two measurements (linear or angular) from fixed reference points. Linear measurements refer to horizontal distances measured by chain or tape. Angular measurements refer to the magnetic bearing or horizontal angle taken by a prismatic compass or theodolite.
In chain surveying, the positions of main stations and directions of main survey lines are fixed by tie lines and check lines.
7. What is Chaining?
8. Instruments used in Chain Surveying?
9. How many links are in 30m Metric Chain? Length of each link?
10. Reciprocal Ranging?
11. What are Corrections?
12. How many ranging rods required for
a. Direct Ranging
b. Indirect or Reciprocal Ranging
13. Principle of Chain Surveying?
14. What is well-conditioned triangle?
15. What is Reconnaissance Survey?
16. What is Index Sketch?
17. How to set Perpendicular Offsets? (900)
18. What is Field Book?
19. Principle of Compass Surveying?
a. True Meridian
b. Magnetic Meridian
c. Arbitrary Meridian
d. Magnetic Bearing
i. Whole Circle Bearing (WCB)
ii. Quadrantal Bearing (QB)
iii. Reduced Bearing (RB)
e. Fore Bearing
f. Back Bearing
g. Magnetic Declination
h. Dip of the magnetic needle
i. Local Attraction
20. What is traversing?
a. Close Traverse?
b. Open Traverse?
21. Check on Closed Traverse
a. Sum of exterior angles?
b. Sum of interior angles?
22. Check on Open Traverse
23. How to adjust Closing Error?
Plane Table Surveying:
25. Principle of Plane Table Surveying?
26. Instruments used?
27. What is Orientation?
a. Orientation by Magnetic Needle?
b. Orientation by Backsighting?
28. Methods of Plane Tabling? What is the need of
29. Uses of Leveling
30. Datum Surface or Line
31. Reduced Level?
32. Line of Collimation?
33. Bench-marks (BM)
a. GTS Bench-marks
b. Permanent Bench-marks
c. Arbitrary Bench-marks
d. Temporary Bench-marks
34. Backsight Reading (BS)
35. Foresight Reading (FS)
36. Intermediate sight Reading (IS)
37. Change Point?
38. Instruments used in Leveling?
39. Types of Leveling?
a. Simple Leveling
b. Differential Leveling
c. Fly Leveling?
d. Profile Leveling?
e. Check Leveling?
40. Need of Reciprocal Leveling?
41. Methods of Calculation of Reduced Level
a. Height of Instrumentation method
b. Rise-and-Fall method
42. Arithmetical Check?
43. What is Contour Map?
44. Contour Line?
45. Contour Interval?
46. Horizontal Equivalent?
47. Object of preparing Contour Map
48. Uses of Contour Map
Computation of Area:
49. Trapezoidal Rule?
50. Simpson’s Rule? Limitation?