## Applications of Logical Reasoning Multiple Choice Questions

1. The logical form of the sentence ’Only food is nutritious’ is ………..
A. no food is nutritious

B. some foods are nutritious

C. all foods are nutritious

D. all nutritious things are food

Answer: D. all nutritious things are food

2. The logical form of the sentence, ’Trees are not fragrant’
A. no trees are fragrant

B. some trees are not fragrant

C. all trees are fragrant

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some trees are not fragrant

3. The logical form of the sentence ‘All that glitters is not gold’
A. some glittering objects are not gold

B. no glittering objects are gold

C. no gold is glittering

D. none of the above

Answer: A. some glittering objects are not gold

4. The logical form of the sentence ‘All graduates can vote’

C. all graduates are those who can voted.

D. none of the above

5. The logical form of the sentence ‘All men are not clever’
A. no men are lever

B. all men are clever

C. some men are not clever.

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some men are not clever.

6. The logical form of the sentence’ Few men are above temptations’
A. some men are above temptations

B. some men are not above temptations.

C. no men are above temptations

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some men are not above temptations.

7. The logical form of the sentence ‘ Only the wise are happy’
A. no one who is happy is wise

B. all who are happy are the wise

C. all the wise are happy .

D. none of the above

Answer: B. all who are happy are the wise

8. The logical form of the sentence ‘A few men are rich’
A. some men are rich

B. no men are rich

C. some men are not rich

D. none of the above

Answer: B. no men are rich

9. The logical form of the sentence ‘Every man is liable to error’
A. no man is liable to error

B. some men are liable to error

C. all men are liable to error

D. none of the above

Answer: C. all men are liable to error

10. The logical form of the sentence ‘All lawyers are not formalists’
A. no lawyers are formalists

B. some lawyers are not formalists

C. some lawyers are formalists

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some lawyers are not formalists

11. The logical form of the sentence ‘ Every mistake is culpable’
A. all mistakes are culpable

B. no mistakes are culpable

C. some mistakes are culpable.

D. none of the above

Answer: A. all mistakes are culpable

12. The logical form of the sentence ‘Every bullet does not kill’
A. no bullets are those that kill

B. some bullets are those that kill

C. some bullets are not those that kill

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some bullets are not those that kill

13. The logical form of the sentence ‘All who praise are not friends’
A. no one who praise are friends

B. some who praise are friends

C. some who praise are not friends

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some who praise are not friends

14. The logical form of the sentence ‘Any student can understand it’
A. all students are those who can understand it

B. some students are those who can understand it

C. some students are not those who can understand it

D. none of the above

Answer: A. all students are those who can understand it

15. The logical form of the sentence’ No everyone can solve this problem’
A. someone are not those who can solve this problem

B. someone are those who can solve this problem

C. no one are those who can solve this problem

D. none of the above

Answer: A. someone are not those who can solve this problem

16. The logical form of the sentence ‘Every Spartan is not a hero’
A. no spartan is a hero

B. some spartans are heroes

C. some spartans are not heroes

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some spartans are not heroes

17. The logical form of the sentence ’ No women was hanged’
A. some women are hanged

B. some women are not hanged

C. no women are those who are hanged

D. none of the above

Answer: C. no women are those who are hanged

18. The logical form of the sentence ‘Few men are not selfish’
A. some men are selfish

B. some men are not selfish

C. no men are selfish

D. none of the above

Answer: A. some men are selfish

19. The logical form of the sentence ‘ Scarcely students are selfish’
A. some students are selfish

B. some students are not selfish

C. no students are selfish

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some students are not selfish

20. The logical form of the sentence ‘ None the brave deserve the fair’
A. no one who is brave are those who deserve the fair

B. all who is brave are those who deserve the fair

C. some brave are those who deserve the fair

D. none of the above

Answer: A. no one who is brave are those who deserve the fair

21. The logical form of the sentence ‘Not all good writers are good speakers’
A. no good writers are good speakers

B. some good writers are good speakers

C. some good writers are not good speakers

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some good writers are not good speakers

22. The logical form of the sentence ‘Only pre-University students are eligible for admission’
A. all those who are eligible for admission are are pre-university students

B. some who are eligible for admission are are pre-university students

C. some pre-university students are eligible for admission

D. none of the above

Answer: A. all those who are eligible for admission are are pre-university students

23. The logical form of the sentence ‘Almost all legisleters are graduates’

C. some legisleters are not graduates

D. none of the above

24. The logical form of the sentence ‘Nearly all students attended the conference’
A. all students are those who attended the conference

B. some students are those attended the conference

C. some students are not those attended the conference

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some students are those attended the conference

25. The logical form of the sentence ‘Ticket holders alone are admitted’
A. all ticket holders are admitted

B. all those who are admitted are ticket holders

C. no ticket holders are admitted

D. none of the above

26. The logical form of the sentence ‘None but women can understand women’
A. all those who can understand women are women

B. some women are those who can understand women

C. some women are not those who can understand women

D. none of the above

Answer: A. all those who can understand women are women

27. The logical form of the sentence ‘A few lawyers are prosperous’
A. some lawyers are prosperous

B. some lawyers are not prosperous

C. no lawyers are prosperous

D. none of the above

Answer: A. some lawyers are prosperous

28. The logical form of the sentence ‘No lazy man succeeds in life’
A. no lazy men are those who succeeds in life

B. all lazy men are those who succeeds in life

C. some lazy men are those who succeeds in life

D. none of the above

Answer: A. no lazy men are those who succeeds in life

29. The logical form of the sentence ‘Few men are free from vanity’
A. some men are free from vanity

B. all men are free from vanity

C. some men are not free from vanity

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some men are not free from vanity

30. The logical form of the sentence ‘All adults can vote’
A. no adults are those who can vote

B. all adults are those who can vote

C. some adults are those who can vote

D. some adults are not those who can vote

31. The logical form of the sentence ‘A few men are liberal minded’
A. some men are not liberal minded

B. all men are liberal minded

C. no men are liberal minded

D. some men are liberal minded

Answer: D. some men are liberal minded

32. The logical form of the sentence ‘All docters in the world can save you’
A. all docters in the world are those who can save you

B. no docters in the world are those who can save you

C. some docters in the world are those who can save you

D. none of the above

Answer: A. all docters in the world are those who can save you

33. The logical form of the sentence ‘Every Spartan is not a hero’
A. some spartans are heroes

B. no spartans are heroes

C. some spartans are not heroes

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some spartans are not heroes

34. The logical form of the sentence ‘All are not wise who read much’
A. n one who read much are wise

B. some who read much are not wise

C. all who read much are wise

D. none of the above

35. The logical form of the sentence ‘A fool is not always wrong ‘
A. some fools are not wrong

B. no fools are wrong

C. some fools are wrong

D. none of the above

Answer: A. some fools are not wrong

36. The logical form of the sentence ‘The virtuous are seldom miserable’
A. no virtuous are miserable

B. some virtuous are miserable

C. some virtuous people are not miserable

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some virtuous people are not miserable

37. The logical form of the sentence ‘Few men really know their own mind’
A. some men are those who really know their own mind

B. all men are not those who really know their own mind

C. no men are those who really know their own mind

D. none of the above

Answer: B. all men are not those who really know their own mind

38. The logical form of the sentence ‘A few students were present’
A. some students are those who were present

B. some students are not those who were present

C. no students are those who were present

D. none of the above

Answer: A. some students are those who were present

39. The logical form of the sentence ‘Many Americans are rich’
A. all americans are rich

B. some americans are rich

C. some americans are not rich

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some americans are rich

40. The logical form of the sentence ‘Only the wise are happy’
A. all wise people are happy

B. no wise people are happy

C. all happy persons are wise

D. none of the above

Answer: C. all happy persons are wise

41. In the traditional square of opposition, A and E are ………………..

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

42. In the traditional square of opposition, A and I are ………………………..

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

43. In the traditional square of opposition, A and O are ………………………..

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

44. In the traditional square of opposition, E and O are ………………………..

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

45. In the traditional square of opposition, E and I are ………………………..

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

46. In the traditional square of opposition, I and O are ………………………..

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

47. In the traditional square of opposition, the contrary of ‘All men are mortal’is ……….
A. no men are mortal

B. some men are mortal

C. some men are not mortal

D. none of the above

Answer: A. no men are mortal

48. In the traditional square of opposition, the sub-altern of ‘All men are mortal’ is ……….
A. no men are mortal

B. some men are mortal

C. some men are not mortal

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some men are mortal
49. In the traditional square of opposition, the contradictory of ‘All men are mortal’is……….
A. no men are mortal

B. some men are mortal

C. some men are not mortal

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some men are not mortal

50. In the traditional square of opposition, the contradictory of ‘No men are mortal’ is……….
A. all men are mortal

B. some men are mortal

C. some men are not mortal

D. none of the above

Answer: B. some men are mortal

51. In the traditional square of opposition, the contrary of ‘No men are mortal’
is……….
A. all men are mortal

B. some men are mortal

C. some men are not mortal

D. none of the above

Answer: A. all men are mortal
52. In the traditional square of opposition, the sub-altern of ‘No men are
mortal’ is ……….
A. all men are mortal

B. some men are mortal

C. some men are not mortal

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some men are not mortal
53. In the traditional square of opposition, the sub-contrary of ‘Some men are
mortal’is……….
A. all men are mortal

B. no men are mortal

C. some men are not mortal

D. none of the above

Answer: C. some men are not mortal
54. In the traditional square of opposition, if A is true, the truth value of E is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

55. In the traditional square of opposition, if A is true, the truth value of I is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

56. In the traditional square of opposition, if A is true , the truth value of O is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

57. In the traditional square of opposition, if A is false , the truth value of O is ..
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

58. In the traditional square of opposition, if A is false, the truth value of E is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

59. In the traditional square of opposition, if A is false , the truth value of I is ….
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

60. In the traditional square of opposition, if E is false , the truth value of I is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

61. In the traditional square of opposition, if E is false, the truth value of A is ….
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

62. In the traditional square of opposition, if E is false, the truth value of O is ..
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

63. In the traditional square of opposition, if E is true, the truth value of I is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

64. In the traditional square of opposition, if E is true, the truth value of A is …..
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

65. In the traditional square of opposition, if E is true, the truth value of O is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

66. In the traditional square of opposition, if I is true, the truth value of A is ….
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

67. In the traditional square of opposition, if I is true, the truth value of E is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

68. In the traditional square of opposition, if I is true, the truth value of O is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

69. In the traditional square of opposition, if I is false, the truth value of O is ….
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

70. In the traditional square of opposition, if I is false, the truth value of A is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

71. In the traditional square of opposition, if I is false, the truth value of E is ….
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

72. In the traditional square of opposition, if O is true, the truth value of A is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

73. In the traditional square of opposition, if O is true, the truth value of E is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

74. In the traditional square of opposition, if O is true, the truth value of I is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

75. In the traditional square of opposition, if O is false, the truth value of I is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

76. In the traditional square of opposition, if O is false, the truth value of A is ..
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

77. In the traditional square of opposition, if O is false, the truth value of E is …
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

78. In the traditional square of opposition, contraries cannot both be ……………..
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

79. In the traditional square of opposition, sub-contraries cannot both be ………
A. true

B. false

C. undetermined

D. none of the above

80. In the traditional square of opposition, state the relation between ‘Some
scientists are religious’ and ‘ All scientists are religious’

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

81. In the traditional square of opposition, state the relation between ‘Some
scientists are religious’ and ‘ No scientists are religious’

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

82. In the traditional square of opposition, state the relation between ‘Some
scientists are religious’ and ‘ Some scientists are not religious’

B. sub-contraries

C. contraries

D. sub-alterns

83. In simple conversion, ………………………….
A. quality changed

B. quantity changed

C. quality and quantity changed

D. no change in quality and quantity

Answer: D. no change in quality and quantity
84. In conversion by limitation, ………………………
A. quality changed

B. quantity changed

C. quality and quantity changed

D. no change in quality and quantity

85. Conversion of A , ……………..
A. simple conversion

B. conversion by limitation

C. no converse

D. none of these

86. Conversion of E, ……………..
A. simple conversion

B. conversion by limitation

C. no converse

D. none of these

87. Conversion of I, ……………..
A. simple conversion

B. conversion by limitation

C. no converse

D. none of these

88. Conversion of O, ……………..
A. simple conversion

B. conversion by limitation

C. no converse

D. none of these

89. Converse of ‘All Indians are Asiatics’
A. all asiatics are indians

B. some asiatics are i ndians

C. some indians are asiatics

D. none of these

Answer: B. some asiatics are i ndians
90. Converse of ‘No Indians are Asiatics’
A. all asiatics are indians

B. some asiatics are indians

C. some indians are asiatics

D. no asiatics are indians

Answer: D. no asiatics are indians
91. Converse of ‘Some Indians are Asiatics’
A. all asiatics are indians

B. some asiatics are indians

C. some indians are asiatics

D. no asiatics are indians

Answer: B. some asiatics are indians

92. Obverse of ‘All Judges are lawyers’
A. no judges are non-lawyers

B. all judges are non-lawyers

C. no lawyers are judges

D. none of these

Answer: A. no judges are non-lawyers
93. Obverse of ‘No Judges are lawyers’
A. no judges are non-lawyers

B. all judges are non-lawyers

C. no lawyers are judges

D. none of these

Answer: B. all judges are non-lawyers
94. Obverse of ‘Some Judges are lawyers’
A. no judges are non-lawyers

B. some judges are not non-lawyers

C. some lawyers are judges

D. none of these

Answer: B. some judges are not non-lawyers
95. Obverse of ‘Some Judges are not lawyers’
A. some judges are non-lawyers

B. all judges are non-lawyers

C. some lawyers are non- judges

D. none of these

Answer: A. some judges are non-lawyers
96. The converse of ‘No men are perfect’
A. all men are non-perfect

B. no perfect beings are men’

C. some men ae not perfect

D. some men are perfect

Answer: B. no perfect beings are men’
97. The converse of ‘Some men are clever’
A. some clever beings are men

B. some non-clever beings are non-men

C. some non-men are non-clever

D. none of these

Answer: A. some clever beings are men

98. The obverse of ‘ All men are mortal’
A. no non-men are non-mortal

B. no men are non-mortal

C. some mortals are men

D. none of these

Answer: B. no men are non-mortal
99. Identify the immediate inference- All metals are elements : therefore some elements are metals
A. conversion

B. obversion

C. contraposition

D. none of the above

100. Identify the immediate inference- Some Indians are Hindus : therefore some Hindus are Indians
A. conversion

B. obversion

C. contraposition

D. none of the above

101. The immediate inference in which subject and predicate are interchanged is
known as:
A. conversion

B. obversion

C. contraposition

D. none of these

102. The immediate inference in which the quality of a proposition is changed
without change in the meaning is known as:
A. conversion

B. obversion

C. contraposition

D. none of these

103. Two propositions having the same subject and predicate, differ in quality
only, the opposed propositions are called:
A. contraries

B. sub-contraries

C. sub-alterns

104. Two propositions having the same subject and predicate, differ in quantity
only, the opposed propositions are called :
A. contraries

B. sub-contraries

C. sub-alterns

105. Immediate inference in which from a given proposition another proposition
having the contradictory of the given predicate as it’s subject is inferred is called:
A. conversion

B. obversion

C. contraposition

D. none of these

106. The partial contrapositive of ‘All dealers are producers’:
A. no non-producers are dealers

B. no non-producers are non-dealers

C. all dealers are non-producers

D. all non-dealers are producers

Answer: A. no non-producers are dealers
107. The full contrapositive of ‘All dealers are producers’:
A. no non-producers are dealers

B. no non-producers are non-dealers

C. all dealers are non-producers

D. all non-dealers are producers

Answer: B. no non-producers are non-dealers
108. The partial contrapositive of ‘No dealers are producers’:
A. some non-producers are dealers

B. some non-producers are non- dealers

C. all dealers are non-producers

D. all non-dealers are producers

Answer: A. some non-producers are dealers
109. The partial contrapositive of ‘Some dealers are not producers’:
A. some non-producers are dealers

B. some non-producers are non- dealers

C. all dealers are non-producers

D. all non-dealers are producers

Answer: A. some non-producers are dealers
110. The full contrapositive of ‘Some dealers are not producers’:
A. some non-producers are dealers

B. some non-producers are not non- dealers

C. all dealers are non-producers

D. all non-dealers are producers

Answer: B. some non-producers are not non- dealers

111. Name the fallacy: Ram is my friend Mohan is Ram’s friend Therefore, Mohan is my friend
A. fallacy of four terms

B. ambiguous major

C. ambiguous minor

D. ambiguous middle

Answer: A. fallacy of four terms
112. Name the fallacy:
No courageous creature flies The eagle is a courageous creature Therefore, the eagle does not fly
A. fallacy of four terms

B. ambiguous major

C. ambiguous minor

D. ambiguous middle

113. Name the fallacy:
No man is made of paper All pages are men Therefore,No pages are made of paper
A. fallacy of four terms

B. ambiguous major

C. ambiguous minor

D. ambiguous middle

114. Name the fallacy: All men are mortal All dogs are mortal Therefore, All men are dogs
A. undistribute middle

B. ambiguous major

C. ambiguous minor

D. ambiguous middle

115. Name the fallacy:
Some intelligent persons are wise No wise persons are king Therefore, Some kings are not intelligent
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

116. Identify the fallacy:
All men are mortal All men are intelligent Therefore, All intelligent persons are mortal
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

117. No Indians are ungrateful
All Indians are religious Therefore ,No religious person is ungrateful
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

118. Identify the fallacy:
All girls are shy This boy is shy Therefore , This boy is girl
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

119. Identify the fallacy:
Al college teachers are graduates He is not a college teacher Therefore , He is not a graduate
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

120. Identify the fallacy:
All cows are quadrupeds No dogs are cows Therefore , No dogs are quadrupeds
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

121. Identify the fallacy:
All fishes live in water All frogs live in water Therefore ,All frogs are fishes
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

122. Identify the fallacy:
All cold is dispelled by heat His ailment is cold Therefore , His ailment can be dispelled by heat
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

123. Identify the fallacy:
Light is the opposite of darkness My purse is light Therefore ,my purse is the opposite of darkness
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

124. . Identify the fallacy:
Red is a colour Blood is red Therefore ,blood is a colour
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

125. Identify the fallacy:
All planets are round A wheel is round Therefore , a wheel is a planet
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

126. Identify the fallacy:
All soldiers serve their country Women are not soldiers Therefore , women do not serve their country
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

127. Identify the fallacy:
All men are selfish No apes are men Therefore ,No apes are selfish
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle

128. In a syllogism, the predicate of the conclusion is called the …………..
A. major term

B. minor term

C. middle term

D. none of these

129. In a syllogism, the subject of the conclusion is called the……………..
A. major term

B. minor term

C. middle term

D. none of these

130. In a syllogism, the term common to both major and minor premises is called
the …………………..
A. major term

B. minor term

C. middle term

D. none of these

131. ……………….. is a fallacy which occurs when a syllogism uses its major
terms in one sense in the major premise and in a different sense in the conclusion.
A. ambiguous major

B. ambiguous minor

C. ambiguous middle

D. none of these

132. ……………….. is a fallacy which occurs when a syllogism uses its minor
terms in one sense in the minor premise and in a different sense in the conclusion.
A. ambiguous major

B. ambiguous minor

C. ambiguous middle

D. none of these

133. ……………….. is a fallacy which occurs when a syllogism uses its middle
terms in one sense in the minor premise and in a different sense in the major premise.
A. ambiguous major

B. ambiguous minor

C. ambiguous middle

D. none of these

134. In syllogism if the middle term is undistributed in both the premises the
fallacy ………………. occurs.
A. undistributed middle

B. undistributed major

C. undistributed minor

D. none of these

135. In a syllogism the fallacy ……………… occurs when the major term which is
not disturbed in the major premise is distributed in the conclusion.
A. illicit major

B. illicit minor

C. undistributed major

D. undistributed minor

136. In a syllogism the fallacy ……………… occurs when the minor term which is
not disturbed in the minor premise is distributed in the conclusion.
A. illicit major

B. illicit minor

C. undistributed major

D. undistributed minor

137. In a syllogism, if one premise is negative, the conclusion must be ………….
A. particular

B. affirmative

C. negative

D. none of these

138. In a syllogism, if the conclusion is negative one premise must be ………..
A. particular

B. affirmative

C. negative

D. none of these

139. In a syllogism, if any one premise is particular the conclusion must be ……
A. particular

B. affirmative

C. negative

D. none of these

140. Identify the fallacy:
Some animals are beasts Some animals are birds Therefore, Some birds are beasts
A. undistributed middle

B. undistributed major

C. undistributed minor

D. none of these

141. Identify the fallacy:
All businessmen are rich No businessmen are socialists Therefore, no socialists are rich
A. undistributed middle

B. illicit major

C. illicit minor

D. ambiguous middle