300+ Top Classical Sociological Theories MCQs and Answers

Classical Sociological Theories Multiple Choice Questions

1. Who coined the term Sociology

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Saint – Simon
C. Auguste Comte
D. Karl Marx

Answer: C. Auguste Comte

2. ———— was greatly influenced by Montesquieu’s ‘The Spirit of the Laws’

A. Machiavelli
B. Auguste Comte
C. Donald Stevenson
D. Alexis de Tocqueville

Answer: D. Alexis de Tocqueville

3. The scientific view developed by Auguste Comte is known as

A. Philosophical science
B. Positive philosophy
C. Negative philosophy
D. Scientific philosophy

Answer: B. Positive philosophy

4. Auguste Comte initially called Sociology ———-

A. Social dynamics
B. Social system
C. Social physics
D. Social science

Answer: C. Social physics

5. In the history of the development of sociology, ——- is known as a period of remarkable intellectual development and change in philosophical thought.

A. Industrial revolution
B. Period of enlightenment
C. Urbanization
D. Religious change

Answer: B. Period of enlightenment

6. The theorists who were most directly and positively influenced by the enlightenment thinking were

A. Auguste Comte and Durkheim
B. Saint Simon and Durkheim
C. Karl Marx and Karl Manheim
D. Alexis de Tocqueville and Karl Marx

Answer: D. Alexis de Tocqueville and Karl Marx

7. The most extreme form of opposition to Enlightenment ideas was ——

A. French Catholic counterrevolutionary philosophy
B. Suffrage Movement
C. Orthodox Believers’ Movement
D. Western European Union Philosophy

Answer: A. French Catholic counterrevolutionary philosophy

8. One of the prominent leaders of the French Catholic counterrevolutionary philosophy was

A. Louis de Bonald
B. Lewis Coser
C. William Hopkins
D. Karl Marx

Answer: A. Louis de Bonald

9. ‘The Law of Three Stages’ is an idea developed by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Karl Marx
D. George Simmel

Answer: B. Auguste Comte

10. Comte developed the Law of Three Stages in his work —-

A. Treatise on Sociology
B. Religion of Humanity
C. The Origin of Sociology
D. The Course in Positive Philosophy

Answer: D. The Course in Positive Philosophy

11. Comte used the term Social Statics to indicate

A. Existing social structures
B. Positive effects
C. Social dynamics
D. Social evolution

Answer: A. Existing social structures

12. The second stage in ‘the Law of Three stages’ is

A. Theological stage
B. Meta-physical stage
C. Evolutionary stage
D. Positive stage

Answer: B. Meta-physical stage

13. The third stage in the Law of Three Stages is known as

A. Positive stage
B. Theological stage
C. Evolutionary stage
D. Metaphysical stage

Answer: A. Positive stage

14. Comte’s theory of social dynamics is founded on …..

A. Social statics
B. Hierarchy of Sciences
C. The Law of three stages
D. Social physics

Answer: C. The Law of three stages

15. The idea of Social dynamics propounded by Comte refers to

A. Sociology
B. Social structures
C. Social change
D. Social thought

Answer: C. Social change

16. The sociological perspective developed by Auguste Comte is known as

A. Constructionism
B. Interpretivism
C. Positivism
D. Phenomenology

Answer: C. Positivism

17. Auguste Comte’s law of three stages about the development of society include

A. Feudal, Industrial and mechanical
B. Positive, negative and neutral
C. Theological, metaphysical and positive
D. Inequality, conflict and equality

Answer: C. Theological, metaphysical and positive

18. Comte believed that ————- could be applied to the study of society and human behaviour

A. Comparative method
B. Phenomenology
C. Longitudinal study
D. Scientific method

Answer: D. Scientific method

19. In which year Auguste Comte was born

A. 1789
B. 1798
C. 1759
D. 1799

Answer: B. 1798

20. Which is not part of the Law of Three Stages according to Auguste Comte?

A. The Theological stage
B. The Metaphysical stage
C. The Metamorphic stage
D. The Positive Stage

Answer: C. The Metamorphic stage

21. ‘Principles of Sociology’ is a work done by

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: B. Herbert Spencer

22. Who among the following is known as ‘Social Darwinist’

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

23. What were the intellectual forces operative during the nineteenth century?

A. Rationalism
B. Humanitarianism
C. Empiricism
D. All of them.

Answer: D. All of them.

24. Who is known as the founding father of Sociology?

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: B. Auguste Comte

25. Who coined the term “Sociology”?

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: B. Auguste Comte

26. Comte, through his ‘Law of Three Stages’ clearly established a close association between

A. Intellectual evolution and Social progress
B. Social change and Social dynamics
C. Social structures and social statics
D. Social laws and social change

Answer: A. Intellectual evolution and Social progress

27. For the contemporary sociologists, social statics and social dynamics refers to

A. The study of sociology
B. Social structure and function
C. Social structure and social status
D. Social interdependence

Answer: B. Social structure and function

28. ‘Positive Philosophy’ is the work done by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: B. Auguste Comte

29. ‘Positive Polity” is written by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: B. Auguste Comte

30. Comte divided the study of Sociology into two broad areas namely

A. Social statics and social dynamics
B. Science and scientific methods
C. Social approach and methods
D. Sociological study and interpretation

Answer: A. Social statics and social dynamics

31. The term ‘Organic analogy’ is associated with

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

32. Who among the following stressed upon the interdependence of different parts of society

A. Auguste Comte
B. Gerorge Simmel
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Herbert Spencer

Answer: D. Herbert Spencer

33. The concept of ‘Social evolution’ was developed by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

34. Who coined the phrase ‘survival of the fittest’ in the course of social evolution?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: B. Herbert Spencer

35. ‘Social statics’ is written by

A. Gerorge Simmel
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Herbert Spencer
D. Auguste Comte

Answer: C. Herbert Spencer

36. ‘First Principle’ is the work by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

37. ‘The Man Versus The State’ is written by

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: B. Herbert Spencer

38. Who among the following viewed society as an organism with interrelated parts

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: B. Herbert Spencer

39. Spencer through hisLaissez-faire doctrine advocates that

A. The state should not intervene in individual affairs except in the rather passive function of protecting people
B. The state should not let individuals to live free in a society
C. The state shall hold the supreme authority over the matters related to the life of the individuals
D. The state should not be responsible for the crimes committed by the individuals

Answer: A. The state should not intervene in individual affairs except in the rather passive function of protecting people

40. ‘Principles of Ethics is written by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

41. In which year Herbert Spencer was born

A. 1920
B. 1821
C. 1820
D. 1870

Answer: C. 1820

42. Spencer’s famous work ‘Principles of Sociology’ was published in the year

A. 1880
B. 1870
C. 1845
D. 1854

Answer: A. 1880

43. Who argued that the society and living organisms have similarities in structure and function?

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

44. Emile Durkheim’s endeavor to establish sociology as a separate academic discipline centred on his efforts to:

A. Develop an all-encompassing synthesis of major sociological perspectives.
B. Demonstrate the influence of social forces on people’s behavior.
C. Show how an understanding of sociological principles could be used to solve social problems.
D. Chart the evolution of major social institutions.

Answer: B. Demonstrate the influence of social forces on people’s behavior.

45. Durkheim’s research suggested that

A. Catholics had much higher suicide rates than Protestants.
B. There seemed to higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution.
C. Civilians were more likely to take their lives than soldiers.
D. Suicide is a solitary act, unrelated to group life.

Answer: B. There seemed to higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution.

46. Anomie refers to

A. A construct, or a made-up model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.
B. The study of small groups.
C. A condition of instability resulting from a breakdown of standards and values or from a lack of purpose or ideals
D. A set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behaviour

Answer: C. A condition of instability resulting from a breakdown of standards and values or from a lack of purpose or ideals

47. Durkheim introduced the concept of ‘anomie’ was in his study of

A. Suicide
B. Social control
C. Social progress
D. Modernization

Answer: A. Suicide

48. The Rules of Sociological Method is a famous work of

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: D. Emile Durkheim

49. According to Durkheim, anomie is caused by

A. Division of labour and rapid social change from traditional to modern society
B. Too much pressure from the state
C. When poverty is eradicated from a society
D. High educational attainment of a group in a society

Answer: A. Division of labour and rapid social change from traditional to modern society

50. Who introduced the term ‘anomie’ in the study of society

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: D. Emile Durkheim

51. Durkheim argued that the task of sociology should be the study of —-

A. Social progress
B. Social facts
C. Anomie
D. Consciousness

Answer: B. Social facts

52. ‘Suicide’ was published in the year

A. 1897
B. 1987
C. 1798
D. 1879

Answer: A. 1897

53. ‘Suicide’ is authored by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Gerorge Simmel
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: D. Emile Durkheim

54. The Division of Labour in Society is a great work by

A. Emile Durkheim
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Auguste Comte
D. Gerorge Simmel

Answer: A. Emile Durkheim

55. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life is written by

A. Karl Marx
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Auguste Comte
D. Gerorge Simmel

Answer: B. Emile Durkheim

56. In his work ‘The Elementary Forms of Religious Life’, Durkheim attributes the development of religion

A. To the development of anomie
B. To the emotional security attained through communal living
C. To the higher rates of suicide
D. To opium

Answer: B. To the emotional security attained through communal living

57. The Rules of Sociological Method was published in the year

A. 1895
B. 1795
C. 1869
D. 1879

Answer: A. 1895

58. Durkheim was born in the year

A. 1868
B. 1857
C. 1856
D. 1858

Answer: D. 1858

59. Emile Durkheim died in the year

A. 1916
B. 1918
C. 1917
D. 1919

Answer: C. 1917

60. According to Durkheim the central characteristic of religion was

A. Sacred-profane dichotomy
B. Life after death
C. Highly superstitious
D. Elimination of all forms of discrimination

Answer: A. Sacred-profane dichotomy

61. The term used by Durkheim to indicate the communal beliefs, morals and attitudes of a society

A. Collective morals
B. Collective consciousness
C. Collective behaviour
D. Collective conscience

Answer: D. Collective conscience

62. Who said that society is a ‘reality sui generis?’

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: C. Emile Durkheim

63. The Course of Positive Philosophy published in

A. Five Volumes
B. Six volumes
C. Four volumes
D. Three volumes

Answer: B. Six volumes

64. According to Durkheim, social solidarity depends on the extent of

A. Discrimination
B. Alienation
C. Division of labour
D. Gender inequality

Answer: C. Division of labour

65. According to Durkheim primitive societies are characterised by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Nominal solidarity
D. Attitudinal solidarity

Answer: A. Mechanical solidarity

66. Durkheim denoted the establishment of specified jobs for specific people as

A. The division of gender
B. The division of labour
C. The division of rules
D. The division of solidarity

Answer: B. The division of labour

67. The binding force between individual and society in primitive societies is regarded as

A. Conscience collective
B. Totemism
C. Social facts
D. Suicide

Answer: A. Conscience collective

68. According to Durkheim, modern societies are characterised by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Nominal solidarity
D. Attitudinal solidarity

Answer: B. Organic solidarity

69. The term conscience collective was used by Durkheim to indicate

A. Shared taboos
B. Fashion sense among the members
C. Shared belief system
D. Kinship system

Answer: C. Shared belief system

70. The type of social solidarity found among agrarian societies is

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Nominal solidarity
D. Attitudinal solidarity

Answer: A. Mechanical solidarity

71. According to Durkheim, Australian totemismthe most primitive and simplest form of — known to us

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Religion
C. Polity
D. Economy

Answer: B. Religion

72. Durkheim holds the view that the preindustrial societies were held together by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Nominal solidarity
D. Attitudinal solidarity

Answer: A. Mechanical solidarity

73. Societies, where individuals were held together by the mechanical solidarity are characterised by

A. High differentiation between individual and collective conscience
B. No distinction between individual and collective conscience
C. No conscience at all
D. Specialised division of labour and job opportunities

Answer: B. No distinction between individual and collective conscience

74. According to Durkheim, the industrial societies are characterised by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Nominal solidarity
C. Attitudinal solidarity
D. Organic solidarity

Answer: D. Organic solidarity

75. Durkheimian approach to sociology is called

A. Structuralism
B. Socialism
C. Functionalism
D. Interactionism

Answer: C. Functionalism

76. Durkheim held that in industrial societies, ——- is based around an acceptance of economic and social differences

A. Social order
B. Social differentiation
C. Social acceptability
D. Social thinking

Answer: A. Social order

77. According to Durkheim the term anomie refers to a state of

A. Comfortability with high integration
B. High integration and social cohesion
C. Chaos and normlessness
D. High division of labour

Answer: C. Chaos and normlessness

78. According to Durkheim, the collective ways of thinking, feeling and acting is known as

A. Social integration
B. Social solidarity
C. Social norms
D. Social facts

Answer: D. Social facts

79. Durkheim divided suicide into — types

A. Three
B. Four
C. Five
D. Two

Answer: B. Four

80. Who is regarded as the founding father of functionalist analysis within sociology?

A. Karl Marx
B. August Comte
C. Durkheim
D. Max Weber

Answer: C. Durkheim

81. According to Durkheim, anomic suicide occurs when

A. A person is too much integrated with the society
B. A person feels disconnected from the society due to lack of social integration
C. A person feels totally detached from the society
D. A person feels extreme social regulation resulting in oppressive conditions

Answer: B. A person feels disconnected from the society due to lack of social integration

82. Weber’s analysis of modern society centred on the concept of..

A. Rationalization
B. Modernization
C. Bureaucracy
D. Power

Answer: A. Rationalization

83. Who developed the concept of ideal type?

A. Karl Marx
B. Max Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Auguste Comte

Answer: B. Max Weber

84. Max weber was born in the year

A. 1764
B. 1864
C. 1865
D. 1765

Answer: B. 1864

85. Which of the following is known to be the famous work of Max Weber

A. The German Ideology
B. The Sociology of Diaspora
C. The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism
D. Suicide

Answer: C. The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism

86. The concept of Bureaucracy was given by

A. Max Weber
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Herbert Spencer
D. Auguste Comte

Answer: A. Max Weber

87. To Max Weber, ideal types are

A. Social realities
B. Sociological phenomena
C. Material tools
D. Mental constructs

Answer: D. Mental constructs

88. How many types of social action are distinguished in Max Weber’s sociology?

A. Six types
B. Four types
C. Three types
D. Five types

Answer: B. Four types

89. Zweckrational actions are otherwise known as

A. Affective Action
B. Value oriented action
C. Goal oriented action
D. Traditional action

Answer: C. Goal oriented action

90. A value oriented rational action is otherwise called

A. Wert-rational action
B. Zweckrational action
C. Traditional action
D. Affective action

Answer: A. Wert-rational action

91. A rational-purposeful action is based on

A. Value rationality
B. Traditional rationality
C. Means-end rationality
D. Affectionate rationality

Answer: C. Means-end rationality

92. The type of action guided by customs and longstanding beliefs is

A. Wert-rational action
B. Zweck-rational action
C. Traditional action
D. Affective action

Answer: C. Traditional action

93. How many types of authorities have been identified by Max Weber based on its claim to legitimacy?

A. Two
B. Three
C. Four
D. Five

Answer: B. Three

94. When a person enjoys authority by virtue of his inherited status, then that type of authority is known as

A. Traditional authority
B. Charismatic authority
C. Legal-rational authority
D. Democratic authority

Answer: A. Traditional authority

95. Charismatic authority is characterised by

A. The supernatural powers possessed by a person
B. The exceptional personal qualities of a leader
C. The inherited status
D. The status occupied by voting

Answer: B. The exceptional personal qualities of a leader

96. According to Max Weber, the basis for the functioning of the legal-rational authority is?

A. Non-hierarchy
B. Dysfunctional system
C. Unwritten laws
D. Rules

Answer: D. Rules

97. A systematic interpretive process of understanding the meaning of action from the actor’s point of view refers to

A. Verstehen
B. Functionalism
C. Structuralism
D. Conflict approach

Answer: A. Verstehen

98. ‘The Protestant Ethic and the spirit of capitalism’ was written by

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: D. Max Webber

99. Who said that ‘Sociology is a science?

A. Karl Marx
B. Georg Simmel
C. Max Weber
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: C. Max Weber

100. Karl Marx was born in the year

A. 1818
B. 1819
C. 1918
D. 1817

Answer: A. 1818

101. Marx called the distinctive method for the analysis of the historical development of society as

A. Conflict approach
B. Neo-Marxist theories
C. Historical materialism
D. Dialectical materialism

Answer: C. Historical materialism

102. The Communist Manifesto was written in the year

A. 1848
B. 1838
C. 1845
D. 1854

Answer: A. 1848

103. Das Kapital was written by

A. Georg Simmel
B. Max Weber
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Karl Marx

Answer: D. Karl Marx

104. Das Kapital was written in the year

A. 1876
B. 1786
C. 1867
D. 1875

Answer: C. 1867

105. The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 was written by

A. Auguste Comte
B. Karl Marx
C. Max Weber
D. George Simmel

Answer: B. Karl Marx

106. —- had a dominant intellectual influence on Karl Marx

A. Auguste Comte
B. Hegel
C. Max Weber
D. George Simmel

Answer: B. Hegel

107. A contribution to the Critique of Political Economy is authored by

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Lewis Coser
C. Karl Marx
D. Max Weber

Answer: C. Karl Marx

108. —– is the amount of socially necessary labour time needed to produce an article under the normal conditions of production and with the average degree of skill and intensity of the time.

A. Use value
B. Surplus value
C. Labour theory of value
D. Exchange value

Answer: C. Labour theory of value

109. In Marxist theory, the working class is called

A. The proletariat
B. Bourgeoisie
C. Capitalists
D. Leftists

Answer: A. The proletariat

110. According to Karl Marx the present state will

A. Continue for long
B. Will wither away
C. Deliver goods with the passage of time
D. Slowly benefit the workers

Answer: B. Will wither away

111. Marx’s focus on real, existing contradictions led to a particular method for studying social phenomena called

A. Dialectical method
B. Economic determinism
C. Causality
D. Class conflict

Answer: A. Dialectical method

112. The theoretical foundation of Marxism is known as

A. Dialectical materialism
B. Historical materialism
C. Class struggle
D. Class consciousness

Answer: A. Dialectical materialism

113. According to Karl Marx, the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of

A. Economic determinism
B. Exploitation
C. Class struggles
D. Alienation

Answer: C. Class struggles

114. According to Marx, the capacity to do a useful work that increases the value of the products is called

A. Surplus value
B. Labour value
C. Labour power
D. Exploitation

Answer: C. Labour power

115. According to Marx, under capitalist mode of production, the surplus takes the form of

A. Loss
B. Profit
C. Product
D. Relations

Answer: B. Profit

116. How many modes of production have been identified by Karl Marx during his study of societies?

A. Four
B. Three
C. Five
D. Two

Answer: A. Four

117. The mode of production existed in primitive communities in which ownership of land was communal is known as

A. Ancient mode of production
B. Capitalist mode of production
C. Feudal mode of production
D. Asiatic mode of production

Answer: D. Asiatic mode of production

118. The mode of production characterised by the emergence of private property is —

A. Ancient mode of production
B. Capitalist mode of production
C. Feudal mode of production
D. Asiatic mode of production

Answer: A. Ancient mode of production

119. The relationship between those who own the means of production (the capitalists or bourgeoisie) and those who do not (the workers or the proletariat) is called

A. Forces of production
B. Relations of production
C. Means of production
D. Exploitation

Answer: B. Relations of production

120. According to Marx, history evolves through the interaction between

A. Means of production and surplus value
B. Means of production and mode of production
C. Mode of production and relations of production
D. Means of production and relations of production

Answer: C. Mode of production and relations of production

121. The system in which the capitalists own the means of production is

A. Socialism
B. Capitalism
C. Feudalism
D. Communism

Answer: B. Capitalism

122. A system in which the workers sell their labour power for wage is known as

A. Socialism
B. Capitalism
C. Feudalism
D. Communism

Answer: B. Capitalism

123. ‘Goods are produced for sale rather than own use’ is a remarkable characteristic of

A. Feudal societies
B. Capitalist societies
C. Ancient societies
D. Primitive societies

Answer: B. Capitalist societies

124. The concept of alienation is developed by

A. Karl Marx
B. Max Weber
C. Herbert Spencer
D. Auguste Comte

Answer: A. Karl Marx

125. The process by which a commodity takes on an independent, almost mystical external reality is known as

A. External value
B. Surplus value
C. Fetishism of commodities
D. Labour value

Answer: C. Fetishism of commodities

126. Workers who sell their labour and do not own their own means of production are

A. Bourgeoisie
B. Proletariat
C. Middle men
D. Slaves

Answer: B. Proletariat

127. The division of class in a capitalist society is based on

A. The ownership of property
B. The changes in relations
C. The production of commodities
D. The surplus value

Answer: A. The ownership of property

128. In a feudal society, feudal lords exploit ——-

A. Slaves
B. Proletariats
C. Bourgeoisie
D. Serfs

Answer: D. Serfs

129. In a capitalist society, Bourgeoisie exploit —

A. Slaves
B. Proletariats
C. Lords
D. Serfs

Answer: B. Proletariats

130. In capitalism who owns and controls the capital?

A. Slaves
B. Proletariats
C. Bourgeoisie
D. Serfs

Answer: C. Bourgeoisie

131. —— posits the idea that every economic order grows to a state of maximum efficiency, while at the same time developing internal contradictions/ weaknesses that contribute to its decay

A. Historical materialism
B. Dialectical materialism
C. Economic determinism
D. Historical determinism

Answer: B. Dialectical materialism

132. In feudalism, the oppressors are known as

A. Bourgeoisie
B. Capitalists
C. Serfs
D. Feudal lords

Answer: D. Feudal lords

133. The term used to describe Marx’s main theoretical perspective for understanding society and history

A. Historical materialism
B. Dialectical materialism
C. Economic determinism
D. Historical determinism

Answer: A. Historical materialism

134. According to Marx, anything in the external world that is used to produce material needs and maintain existence is termed as

A. Mode of production
B. Forces of production
C. Relations of production
D. Means of production

Answer: D. Means of production

135. Marx denotes land, animals, tools, machinery etc are examples for the

A. Mode of production
B. Forces of production
C. Means of production
D. Relations of production

Answer: C. Means of production

136. In Marx’s view, the factor that binds one class to another is

A. Mode of production
B. Forces of production
C. Means of production
D. Relations of production

Answer: D. Relations of production

137. The single most fundamental fact of the materialist theory of history is

A. Control over the history of production
B. The ownership over the means of production
C. Ownership over the relations of production
D. Distribution of the forces of production

Answer: B. The ownership over the means of production

138. In Marx’s view, the forces of production along with the relations of production define —

A. Mode of production
B. Means of production
C. Surplus value
D. Labour value

Answer: A. Mode of production

139. In an economic system, the ———— has the ability to determine the system of social relations arising from it

A. Mode of production
B. Forces of production
C. Means of production
D. Relations of production

Answer: A. Mode of production

140. The mode of production that encompasses a rudimentary system of production in which people live together principally by hunting and gathering was

A. Feudal mode of production
B. Ancient mode of production
C. Capitalism
D. Asiatic mode of production

Answer: D. Asiatic mode of production

141. Of the four types of mode of production identified by Karl Marx, which one had a communal ownership over the property with no system of class relations?

A. Feudal mode of production
B. Asiatic mode of production
C. Ancient mode of production
D. Capitalism

Answer: B. Asiatic mode of production

142. In a system of ancient mode of production the ‘oppressed’ were

A. Slaves
B. Landlords
C. Peasants
D. Tenants

Answer: A. Slaves

143. The feudal mode of production provided landholders with the powers of coercion over the class of

A. Proletariats
B. Bourgeoisie
C. Serfs
D. Capitals

Answer: C. Serfs

144. A contribution to the Critique of Political Economy was written in the year

A. 1857
B. 1856
C. 1869
D. 1859

Answer: D. 1859

145. According to Marx, a thing whose qualities are capable of satisfying human needs is known as

A. Capital
B. Subject
C. Commodity
D. Surplus

Answer: C. Commodity

146. Marx called the quality of a commodity to serve a particular human need or function as

A. Exchange value
B. Use value
C. Surplus value
D. Labour value

Answer: B. Use value

147. According to Marx. Exchange value is found only in

A. Socialism
B. Capitalism
C. Feudalism
D. Communism

Answer: B. Capitalism

148. Marx called the capacity of human labour to bring about utility in a commodity and produce simple use values as

A. Useful labour
B. Abstract labour
C. Distinct labour
D. Definite labour

Answer: A. Useful labour

149. Marx stated that the products of useful labour assumes the form of commodities only in

A. Feudalistic societies
B. Ancient societies
C. Agricultural societies
D. Capitalist societies

Answer: D. Capitalist societies

150. According to Marx, exploitation takes the form of surplus value in

A. Feudalistic societies
B. Capitalist societies
C. Ancient societies
D. Agricultural societies

Answer: B. Capitalist societies

151. The name Marx gave to the process whereby the means of production become the private property of one class of persons and create the ‘pauperization of the direct producer’

A. Commoditization
B. Surplus value
C. Primitive accumulation
D. Division of labour

Answer: C. Primitive accumulation

152. According to Marx, ——- breaks the fundamental connections human beings have to the means of production in terms of economic subsistence and survival

A. Alienation
B. Commoditization
C. Production activity
D. Exchange of goods

Answer: A. Alienation

153. According to Marx, when workers become estranged from the things they produce, it is called

A. Alienation from the product activity
B. Alienation from the product
C. Alienation from the species
D. Alienation from fellow-beings

Answer: B. Alienation from the product

154. The type of alienation in which human beings lose control over the capacity of their labour to affirm their being and define their self-existence is

A. Alienation from the product activity
B. Alienation from the product
C. Alienation from the self
D. Alienation from fellow-beings

Answer: A. Alienation from the product activity

155. When a person is alienated from the human social community, it is called

A. Alienation from the product activity
B. Alienation from the product
C. Alienation from the species
D. Alienation from fellow humans.

Answer: D. Alienation from fellow humans.

156. The term used by Durkheim to identify a system of social relations linking individuals to each other and to the society as a whole is

A. Acculturation
B. Association
C. Social solidarity
D. Social facts

Answer: C. Social solidarity

157. For Durkheim ——- describes the degree of social integration which links individuals to social groups outside them.

A. Acculturation
B. Association
C. Social solidarity
D. Social facts

Answer: C. Social solidarity

158. The type of social bonding that discourages individual autonomy in a society is termed as

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Homogenous solidarity
D. Heterogeneous solidarity

Answer: A. Mechanical solidarity

159. When a society is with a homogeneous population which is small and isolated, it is characterised by the existence of

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Homogenous solidarity
D. Heterogeneous solidarity

Answer: A. Mechanical solidarity

160. In a society where labour is specialized and individuals are linked more to each other than they are to society as a whole, it is characterised by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Homogenous solidarity
D. Heterogeneous solidarity

Answer: B. Organic solidarity

161. According to Durkheim, the primary characteristic of organic solidarity is the development of

A. Social facts
B. Suicide
C. Division of labour
D. Forced labour

Answer: C. Division of labour

162. According to Durkheim, when an industrial crisis breaks down the social solidarity existing between specialized functions and creates a decline in social cohesion, it is called

A. The forced division of labour
B. Poor division of labour
C. Abnormal division of labour
D. Anomic division of labour

Answer: D. Anomic division of labour

163. According to Durkheim, —– are external to the individual

A. Social facts
B. Social solidarity
C. Social justice
D. Social sanction

Answer: A. Social facts

164. Durkheim maintained that in order to study social facts, it should be considered as

A. Abstracts
B. Things
C. Facts
D. Pathological

Answer: B. Things

165. According to Durkheim, the study of the form and structure of societies and its classification based on attributes can be called as

A. Social pathology
B. Social phenomenology
C. Social morphology
D. Social psychology

Answer: C. Social morphology

166. ————— is the result of the weakening of the bonds which tie the individual to the society

A. Anomic suicide
B. Fatalistic suicide
C. Egoistic suicide
D. Altruistic suicide

Answer: C. Egoistic suicide

167. They type of suicide resulting from too much social integration is known as

A. Anomic suicide
B. Fatalistic suicide
C. Egoistic suicide
D. Altruistic suicide

Answer: D. Altruistic suicide

168. The suicide of older men threatened with severe illness is an example for

A. Altruistic suicide
B. Anomic suicide
C. Fatalistic suicide
D. Egoistic suicide

Answer: A. Altruistic suicide

169. ———– is at the opposite pole of social integration to altruistic suicide

A. Altruistic suicide
B. Anomic suicide
C. Fatalistic suicide
D. Egoistic suicide

Answer: D. Egoistic suicide

170. The type of altruistic suicide in which society imposes an explicit duty on individuals to take their own life but lacking specific coercive pressure from the community is known as

A. Optional altruistic suicide
B. Obligatory altruistic suicide
C. Acute altruistic suicide
D. Mystic altruistic suicide

Answer: B. Obligatory altruistic suicide

171. The type of suicide occurring due to excess of social regulation is called

A. Altruistic suicide
B. Anomic suicide
C. Fatalistic suicide
D. Egoistic suicide

Answer: C. Fatalistic suicide

172. The doctrine that holds the view that historical circumstances are determined by a sequence of economic events connected to the act of production is known as

A. Historical materialism
B. Rationalization
C. Economic determinism
D. Economic materialism

Answer: C. Economic determinism

173. Weber placed ———– as the key to understand the pattern of historical development

A. Power
B. Ideal types
C. Bureaucracy
D. Rationalization

Answer: D. Rationalization

174. According to Weber, the process by which nature, society and individual actions are increasingly mastered by an orientation to planning, technical procedure and rational action is called

A. Rationalization
B. Rationality
C. Social causation
D. Individual autonomy

Answer: A. Rationalization

175. The term Weber used to refer to the capacity of social action to be subject to calculation in the means and ends of action is

A. Rationalization
B. Rationality
C. Social causation
D. Calculation

Answer: B. Rationality

176. According to Weber, the amount of quantitative calculation and accounting procedure that goes into an action or decision is called

A. Practical rationality
B. Theoretical rationality
C. Formal rationality
D. Substantive rationality

Answer: C. Formal rationality

177. Weber refers practical rationality as

A. The amount of quantitative calculation and accounting procedure that goes into an action or decision.
B. A way of looking at the world in which the meaning of an act is believed to lie in its function or utility.
C. The one that imposes order on reality by conceptual reasoning
D. A practical orientation of action regarding outcomes or results.

Answer: B. A way of looking at the world in which the meaning of an act is believed to lie in its function or utility.

178. Which perspective advocated society as a system with balance and boundaries?

A. Structuralism
B. Functionalism
C. Interactionism
D. Conflict perspective

Answer: B. Functionalism

179. Weber’s theory of social class appears in his work

A. The Sociology of Religion
B. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
C. The Capitalist society
D. Economy and Society

Answer: D. Economy and Society

180. August Comte defined sociology as a

A. Comparative science
B. Historical method
C. Positive science
D. General Science

Answer: C. Positive science

181. Evolutionary theory is often regarded as the greatest contribution of British Sociologist

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Karl Marx
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

182. The building blocks of a theory is called

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: B. Concepts

183. Conclusions drawn about the relationship among concepts based on the logical interrelationship is called

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: C. Propositions

184. Specified expectations about empirical reality derived from propositions are called

A. Definitions
B. Propositions
C. Variables
D. Hypotheses

Answer: D. Hypotheses

185. A concept having two or more values or categories that can vary and be measured is known as

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: D. Variables

186. The theoretical perspective that holds that society is a complex system whose various parts work together to produce stability is

A. Structuralism
B. Functionalism
C. Conflict perspective
D. Interactionism

Answer: B. Functionalism

187. A prominent exponent of functionalism in the United States

A. Karl Marx
B. Durkheim
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Wilfredo Pareto

Answer: C. Talcott Parsons

188. The concept of ‘dysfunction’ is a major contribution of

A. Durkheim
B. Robert K Merton
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Wilfredo Pareto

Answer: B. Robert K Merton

189. The theoretical perspective that emphasises the importance of moral consensus in maintaining order and stability in a system is called

A. Structuralism
B. Functionalism
C. Conflict perspective
D. Interactionism

Answer: B. Functionalism

190. What are manifest functions?

A. Unrecognised and intended consequences of a social action
B. Recognised and unintended consequences of a social action
C. Unrecognised and Unintended consequences of a social action
D. Recognised and intended consequences of a social action

Answer: D. Recognised and intended consequences of a social action

191. Robert K Merton is a

A. Structuralist
B. Structural-Functionalist
C. Conflict theorist
D. Interactionist

Answer: B. Structural-Functionalist

192. Middle-range theories is a great contribution by

A. Robert K Merton
B. Talcott Parson
C. Ralph Dahrendorf
D. Wright Mills

Answer: A. Robert K Merton

193. The evolutionary perspective holds the idea that

A. The social system is in a state of equilibrium
B. Change in one part of a system affects other parts
C. Societies gradually change from simple to complex systems
D. The social system consists of interrelated parts

Answer: C. Societies gradually change from simple to complex systems

194. Auguste Comte believed that human societies can evolve only in a

A. Stagnant state
B. Polylinear way
C. Multi-linear way
D. Uni-linear way

Answer: D. Uni-linear way

195. Latent functions are always

A. Unrecognised and intended consequences of a social action
B. Recognised and unintended consequences of a social action
C. Unrecognised and Unintended consequences of a social action
D. Recognised and intended consequences of a social action

Answer: C. Unrecognised and Unintended consequences of a social action

196. The study of everyday behaviour in situations of face to face interaction is usually called

A. Microsociology
B. Public sociology
C. Macrosociology
D. Political sociology

Answer: A. Microsociology

197. Theories that deal with the analysis of large-scale social structures and long-term processes of change is called

A. Micro level theories
B. Macro level theories
C. Middle-range theories
D. Symbolic interactionism

Answer: B. Macro level theories

198. Levi-Strauss is a prominent

A. Functionalist
B. Interactionist
C. Structural- functionalist
D. Structuralist

Answer: D. Structuralist

199. Who introduced the term sociological imagination?

A. Lewis Coser
B. C H Cooley
C. C Wright Mills
D. Max Weber

Answer: C. C Wright Mills

200. The Sociological paradigm that focuses on the way each part of society functions together to contribute to the whole is called

A. Structuralism
B. Structural-functionalism
C. Conflict theory
D. Symbolic interactionism

Answer: B. Structural-functionalism

201. Conflict theories operate at a ——– perspective

A. Micro-level
B. Macro-level
C. Individual level
D. Peripheral level

Answer: B. Macro-level

202. The sociological paradigm that focuses on the way inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuate differences in power is known as

A. Structuralism
B. Structural-functionalism
C. Conflict theory
D. Symbolic interactionism

Answer: C. Conflict theory

203. Symbolic interactionism is known to be a —————–

A. Micro-level theory
B. Macro-level theory
C. Meso-level theory
D. Middle-range theory

Answer: A. Micro-level theory

204. Symbolic interactionism focuses on ———-

A. Structure of the society
B. Function of the society
C. Conflicts over resources
D. One to one interactions and communications

Answer: D. One to one interactions and communications

205. Who believed that society is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent parts that work together to maintain stability?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: C. Emile Durkheim

206. Who is known as the founder of conflict theory?

A. Karl Marx
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: A. Karl Marx

207. Who is the founder of symbolic interactionism?

A. Herbert Blumer
B. Sigmund Freud
C. C H Cooley
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: D. George Herbert Mead

208. Who among the following coined the term ‘symbolic interactionism’?

A. Herbert Blumer
B. Sigmund Freud
C. C H Cooley
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: A. Herbert Blumer

209. The dramaturgical model for the analysis of social interaction was developed by

A. Erving Goffman
B. Sigmund Freud
C. C H Cooley
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: A. Erving Goffman

210. One of the major concept in social darwinism

A. Struggle for existence
B. Survival of the fittest
C. Organic analogy
D. Natural selection

Answer: B. Survival of the fittest

211. Who postulated the theory of social Darwinism?

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Saint – Simon
C. Auguste Comte
D. Karl Marx

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

212. What are the three stages argued by Comte that knowledge pass through?

A. Primitive – feudal – capitalistic
B. Theological – metaphysical –positive
C. Barbarian – Agricultural – Industrial
D. Tribal – Industrial – Capitalistic

Answer: B. Theological – metaphysical –positive

213. Max Weber’s ‘the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism’ focuses on

A. The relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism
B. The relationship between the Protestants and the Capitalists in terms of exploitation
C. The relationship of the ideology of Protestants and the Capitalist mode of production
D. The issues in accumulating wealth among the Capitalists and the Protestants’ struggle

Answer: A. The relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism

214. Who among the following said that ‘Sociology is the science of understanding the meaning of social action?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: D. Max Webber

215. Who among the following analysed the impact of religious beliefs on the economic growth for the first time?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Max Webber
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: C. Max Webber

216. Who advocated the social action approach in sociology for the first time?

A. Max Webber
B. Auguste Comte
C. Herbert Spencer
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Max Webber

217. Weber’s concept, the Verstehen stands for

A. Understanding of how the researchers interpret the social action
B. Understanding social action in an objective manner
C. Understanding how the social world is made of actors
D. Understanding social world from the point of view of the actors

Answer: D. Understanding social world from the point of view of the actors

218. What distinguishes Calvinism from Lutheranism?

A. Conversion
B. Predestination
C. Repentance
D. Systematization

Answer: B. Predestination

219. The authority based on the exceptional qualities of a leader remarks

A. Supreme authority
B. Legal-rational authority
C. Charismatic authority
D. Traditional authority

Answer: C. Charismatic authority

220. Sociology as a separate discipline was emerged primarily out of ———–

A. Russian revolution
B. Enlightenment thought
C. Classical thought
D. Social philosophy

Answer: B. Enlightenment thought

221. In which year did the French revolution take place?

A. 1789
B. 1769
C. 1787
D. 1798

Answer: A. 1789

222. When did Industrial revolution take place?

A. 16th Century
B. 17th Century
C. 18th Century
D. 19th Century

Answer: C. 18th Century

223. As a result of —- the aristocrats lost their power and wealth and bourgeoisie came into power

A. Scientific thought
B. French revolution
C. Industrial revolution
D. Globalization

Answer: B. French revolution

224. ———- paved way for the destruction of feudal system and emergence of modern capitalism

A. Scientific thought
B. French revolution
C. Industrial revolution
D. Globalization

Answer: C. Industrial revolution

225. What was the major factor that led to French revolution?

A. Enlightenment
B. Industrial revolution
C. Positive philosophy
D. Estate system

Answer: A. Enlightenment

226. The hierarchical system existed in France at the time of French revolution

A. Class system
B. Caste system
C. Estate system
D. Egalitarianism

Answer: C. Estate system

227. Which was the first estate prevailing in France during French revolution?

A. Clergy
B. Nobles
C. Serfs
D. Labourers

Answer: A. Clergy

228. Which was the second estate prevailing in France during French revolution?

A. Clergy
B. Nobles
C. Serfs
D. Labourers

Answer: B. Nobles

229. Which was the third estate prevailing in France during French revolution?

A. Clergy
B. Nobles
C. Serfs
D. Labourers

Answer: C. Serfs

230. The third estate of the estate system in France consisted of —– percent of the French population

A. 20 percent
B. 75 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 96 percent

Answer: D. 96 percent

231. The first estate in France held its supremacy through the power of church

A. Clergy
B. Nobles
C. Serfs
D. Labourers

Answer: A. Clergy

232. The period of enlightenment is also known as

A. Age of darkness
B. Age of reasoning
C. Age of revolution
D. Age of commonsense

Answer: B. Age of reasoning

233. Associated with the enlightenment is the 17th century —-

A. Globalization
B. Privatization
C. Scientific thought
D. Common sense

Answer: C. Scientific thought

234. Who among the following is closely associated with “Enlightenment?’

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spence
C. George Simmel
D. Voltaire

Answer: D. Voltaire

235. Who is the author of ‘Political Philosophy’ that had significantly influenced the French revolution?

A. Jean-JacquesRousseau
B. Montesquieu
C. Denis Diderot
D. David Hume

Answer: A. Jean-JacquesRousseau

236. The political tension and economic antagonism between two classes is called

A. Class competition
B. Class conflict
C. Class interests
D. Class upheaval

Answer: B. Class conflict

237. According to Marx, the conflict of interests between two antagonistic classes leads to

A. Class struggle
B. Class tension
C. Competition
D. War

Answer: A. Class struggle

238. The egalitarian society Marx believed to replace the capitalism is called

A. Feudal society
B. Agrarian society
C. Socialist society
D. Industrial society

Answer: C. Socialist society

239. Who said that Sociology is a science?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: C. Emile Durkheim

240. Who advocated a social action approach in sociology?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: D. Max Webber

241. The social force binding people together in a society will be weak when the society is characterised by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Inorganic solidarity
D. Capital solidarity

Answer: B. Organic solidarity

242. Strong social bonds between people can be seen when the society is characterised by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Inorganic solidarity
D. Capital solidarity

Answer: A. Mechanical solidarity

243. Urbanization was the result of ————— during 18thcentury

A. Scientific thought
B. French revolution
C. Industrial revolution
D. Globalization

Answer: C. Industrial revolution

244. Who served as advisors to King and Governors in the estate system?

A. Clergy
B. Nobles
C. Serfs
D. Labourers

Answer: A. Clergy

245. Marx believed that the destruction of capitalism will lead to the formation of

A. Feudalism
B. Agrarian system
C. Socialism
D. Secularism

Answer: C. Socialism

246. Karl Marx was inspired by the dialectical method of

A. Saint simon
B. Hegel
C. Engel
D. Weber

Answer: B. Hegel

247. According to Karl Marx, class conflict occurs with the emergence of

A. Competition
B. Cooperation
C. Compartmentalisation
D. Class consciousness

Answer: D. Class consciousness

248. Which of the following is not an aspect of alienation in capitalist societies?

A. Alienation from the product activity
B. Alienation from the products
C. Alienation from species
D. Alienation from wages

Answer: D. Alienation from wages

249. The rise of individualism was an important social thought emerged out of ——–

A. Industrial revolution
B. Agricultural revolution followed by industrial revolution
C. Industrial revolution and French revolution
D. Enlightenment and French revolution

Answer: D. Enlightenment and French revolution

250. The French revolution marked the development of a new class called

A. Proletariats
B. Labourer
C. Capitalists
D. Peasants

Answer: C. Capitalists

251. Who among the following held the view that society is a moral entity?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: C. Emile Durkheim

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