[PDF Notes] Complete Biography of Qutb-ud-Din Mubarak Shah

Under the influence of Malik Kafur, Ala-ud-Din had disinherited Khizr Khan and nominated his minor son, Shihab-ud-Din Umar, as his successor. When Ala-ud-Din died, this boy was hardly six. Malik Kafur put this boy on the throne and himself became the regent. Khizr Khan and Shadi Khan were blinded.

Mubark Khan, the third son of Ala-ud-Din, who was them about seventeen or eighteen years of age, was imprisoned and Malik Kafur sent his agents to take out his eyes. However, Mubarak bribed those persons and instead of blinding Mubarak, they went back and killed Malik Kafur. After the death of Malik Kafur, Mubarak was appointed regent for Shihab-ud-Din Umar.

After about two months, Mubarak dethroned and blinded Shihab-ud-Din Umar and put himself on the throne. This happened on 1st April, 1316. Mubarak took up the title of Qutb-ud-Din Mubarak Shah.

After seating himself on the throne, he tried to win over the goodwill of the people. All persons were released. All harsh regulations of his father were cancelled. Those nobles, who had been banished by his father, were called back.

A policy of forget and forgive was followed. The lands which were confiscated were given to their levitate owners. Taxes were lowered. Zia-ud-Din Barani tells us that there was no longer fear of any dictation by the state in every matter.

Unfortunately, the result of relaxation of controls was that there was a fall in the moral standards of the country and officials. Mubarak Shah also joined the nobles in drinking and merry making.

He came under the influence of Hassan who was originally a shepherd but was raised to the position of Prime Minister and given the title of Khusro.

Everybody took advantage of the weakness of the new ruler. There was a revolt in Gujarat. The ruler of Devagiri became independent.

The important states of Rajputana, particularly Marwar, became independent. Ain-ul-Mulk Multani was sent to Gujarat and he was successful in putting down the revolt and Zafar Khan was appointed its Governor. In 1317, Mubarak Shah himself went to Devagiri to conquer it. Harapala Deva, the ruler of Devagiri, ran away from his capital.

However, he was captured and put to death. His head was put on one of the gates of Devagiri. Muslim officials were put in charge of the various districts of Devagiri and Muslim garrisons were established in that territory.

Gulbarga, Sagar and Dwarsamudra were occupied once again and put under Muslim officials. A mosque was built at Devagiri out of the material of Hindu temples. MalikYaklaki was appointed the Governor of Devagiri.

A conspiracy was hatched to murder Mubarak Shah and put a son of Khizr Khan on the throne. The chief conspirator was Asad-ud-Din, a cousin of Mubarak Shah. Mubarak Shah came to know of the conspiracy from one of the conspirators and the result was that all the conspirators were arrested and put to death.

Even Khizr Khan, Shadi Khan and Shihab-ud-Din were put to death. Mubarak Shah married Deval Devi,’ widow of Khizr Khan.

The success of Mubarak Shah in the Deccan turned his head and he began to behave in a most irresponsible manner. Zafar Khan and Shahim were put to death without any cause.

He himself spent all his time in the company of women and buffoons. He allowed the jesters and courtiers to-abuse and make fool of the old and experienced nobles.

The Sultan himself ran naked among his courtiers and the net result of all these things was that all respect for the crown disappeared. Malik Yaklaki, Governor of Devagiri, revolted and declared himself king. He was defeated and sent to Delhi. Mubarak Shah ordered his nose and ears to be cut. Later on, he was pardoned and made Governor of Samana.

Mubarak Shah had showered favours on Khusro and his associates. He was given many warnings against the designs of Khusro but he refused to listen to them.

He allowed Khusro to have a separate cavalry of his own 40,000 strong. Khusro was allowed to live inside the palace. His relations and friends were allowed to enter the palace. A conspiracy was hatched by Khusro to dispose of Mubarak Shah and on the night of 14 April, 1320, the troops of Khusro entered the palace and cut down the royal guards. Khusro himself caught hold of Mubarak Shah by the hair and Jaharia, one of his followers, stabbed him to death. The head of Mubarak Shah was cut off and thrown into the courtyard. N

According to Dr. S. Roy, “Mubarak was an unworthy successor of his father. Frivolous and depraved, cruel and arrogant, Mubarak lacked his father’s ability and vigor as well as his genius for organization and leadership. In him the vices of Ala-ud-Din were magnified, but his virtues were lacking.

Though he did not observe fasts and say prayers, he assumed the title of Commander of the Faithful and Vicegerent of God as well as Imam and thereby made the kingdom of Delhi independent of the Caliphate.

His predecessors, including the lordly Balban and the mighty Ala-ud-Din Sikandar Sani, had all acknowledged the legal sovereignty of the Caliph. Mubarak also displayed hatred and animosity against the saini Nizam-ud-Din Auliya.”

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