Cyber Security Multiple Choice Questions
1. What is the significance of a firewall in cybersecurity?
- To prevent unauthorized physical access to a computer
- To detect and remove malware from a computer
- To protect a computer from unauthorized network access
- To encrypt sensitive data on a computer
Answer: C To protect a computer from unauthorized network access.
Explanation: Firewalls are hardware or software-based security barriers that control incoming and outgoing network traffic.
2. Which of the following options correctly identifies the two primary types of encryption used in cybersecurity?
- Symmetric encryption and multi-factor authentication
- Asymmetric encryption and Private-key encryption
- Single-factor encryption and Decryption
- Symmetric encryption and Asymmetric encryption
Answer: D Symmetric encryption and Asymmetric encryption
Explanation: The process of encoding data to protect it from unauthorized access is known as encryption. There are two primary types of encryption: symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption.
3. Phishing is a type of cyber threat that involves ____.
- Mimicking an authorized user to steal sensitive information
- Gaining unauthorized access to a system
- Local storage destruction
- Sending large amounts of fake traffic to a server
Answer: A Mimicking an authorized user to steal sensitive information.
Explanation: Phishing is a cyber-attack where the attacker attempts to deceive individuals into revealing sensitive information, such as login credentials, credit card numbers, or other personal data.
4. What does the term “Malware” stands for?
- Malfunctioning Software
- Malicious Firmware
- Malfunctioning Hardware
- Malicious Software
Answer: D Malicious Software
Explanation: The term “malware” stands for “malicious software.” Malware refers to any type of software or code that is specifically designed to harm, exploit, or gain unauthorized access to computer systems, networks, or user devices.
5. Amongst which of the following are the primary goals of cyber security?
- Encryption, authorization, and availability
- Confidentiality, integrity, and authentication
- Firewalls, intrusion detection, and data backups
- Phishing prevention, malware detection, and spam filtering
Answer: B Confidentiality, integrity, and authentication.
Explanation: The primary goal of cybersecurity is to provide confidentiality, integrity, and authentication, which are commonly referred to as the CIA Triad in information security.
6. The term “Cyber Threats” in cyber security refers to ____.
- Techniques used by cybersecurity professionals to protect systems
- Malicious activities are carried out by hackers to breach firewalls
- Hardware components that are susceptible to cyber-attacks
- The process of encrypting sensitive data for secure transmission
Answer: B Malicious activities are carried out by hackers to breach firewalls.
Explanation: Cyber threats encompass various types of malicious activities carried out by cybercriminals and hackers such as viruses, worms, ransomware), phishing, social engineering, and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.
7. The process of encoding data to protect it from unauthorized access is known as ____.
- Intrusion Detection
- Multi-factor Authentication
Answer: A Encryption
Explanation: Encryption is a process of converting plain, readable data (plaintext) into an unreadable form (ciphertext) using an algorithm and a cryptographic key.
8. Which of the following options best defines an attack vector in terms of cyber security?
- A software tool used by ethical hackers to test system vulnerabilities
- A technique to encrypt sensitive data during transmission
- A method or avenue used by cyber threats to gain unauthorized access to a system or network
- A hardware component that helps prevents denial-of-service attacks
Answer: C A method or avenue used by cyber threats to gain unauthorized access to a system or network.
Explanation: An attack vector in the context of cybersecurity refers to the method or avenue through which cyber threats, such as hackers or malicious actors, gain unauthorized access to a system, network, or application.
9. Which of the following is an example of a cyber-attack on physical infrastructure?
- Phishing attack on employee’s email
- DDoS attack on the company’s server
- Stuxnet attack on an irrigation control system
- Ransomware attack on company’s server
Answer: C Stuxnet attack on an irrigation control system.
Explanation: The Stuxnet attack is an example of a cyber-attack on physical infrastructure. The worm used in this attack was designed to infiltrate and manipulate Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) used in centrifuges to enrich uranium.
10. What does the term “VPN” stand for?
- Virtual Personal Network
- Virtual Private Network
- Virtual Portable Network
- Virtual Public Network
Answer: B Virtual Private Network
Explanation: The term “VPN” stands for Virtual Private Network. A VPN is a secure and encrypted network connection that allows users to access the Internet or other private networks securely over a public network (usually the Internet).
11. Amongst which of the following shows the importance of regular data backups in cyber security?
- To protect against social engineering attacks
- To encrypt sensitive data during transmission
- To prevent unauthorized access to a network
- To ensure data recovery in case of data loss or cyber-attacks
Answer: D To ensure data recovery in case of data loss or cyber-attacks.
Explanation: Regular data backups are important in cybersecurity for prevention against data loss, ransomware, cyber-attacks, disaster recovery, etc.
12. Which of the following is a common type of social engineering attack?
- Brute force attack
- Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack
- Phishing attack
- SQL injection attack
Answer: C Phishing attack
Explanation: Phishing attack is a common type of social engineering attack. The goal of the phishing attack is to trick recipients into revealing sensitive information, such as login credentials, personal data, or financial details.
13. Which of the following is not a typical source of data leakage threats?
- Phishing attacks
- Insider threats
- Antivirus software
- Unsecured Wi-Fi networks
Answer: C Antivirus software
Explanation: Antivirus software is not a typical source of data leakage threats. In fact, antivirus software is designed to protect against data leakage.
14. Amongst which of the following is not an example of physical data leakage?
- Using weak passwords for online accounts
- Dumpster diving
- Shoulder surfing
Answer: B Using weak passwords for online accounts.
Explanation: Physical data leakage refers to the unauthorized disclosure or exposure of sensitive data in a physical form. It involves the cases where physical items, such as documents, storage devices, or hardware, containing sensitive information are mishandled or lost.
15. Safeguarding the data from unauthorized modification by unknown users is known as ____.
Answer: A Integrity
Explanation: Data Integrity refers to the security principle of ensuring that data remains accurate, unaltered, and trustworthy throughout its entire life cycle.
16. What occurs when integrity is lacking in a system?
- Data breaches and unauthorized access
- Loss of data due to hardware failure
- Encryption of sensitive information
- Secure transmission of data over the internet
Answer: A Data breaches and unauthorized access.
Explanation: When integrity is lacking in a system, data breaches and unauthorized access becomes significant risks.
17. Which one of the following is a common way to maintain data availability?
- Data Encryption
- Regular Data Backups
- Intrusion Detection Systems
- Multi-factor Authentication
Answer: B Regular Data Backups
Explanation: Maintaining data availability is essential to ensure that data is accessible when needed and remains available to authorized users. One common way to achieve data availability is through regular data backups.
18. Which of the following options is true about “Vulnerability”?
- Vulnerability refers to the act of maliciously exploiting software flaws
- Vulnerability is a measure of the potential impact of a cyber-attack
- Vulnerability is a security mechanism used to protect computer systems
- Vulnerability is a weakness or flaw in a system that could be exploited by threats
Answer: D Vulnerability is a weakness or flaw in a system that could be exploited by threats.
Explanation: Vulnerability refers to a weakness or flaw in a system, network, software, or application that makes it susceptible to exploitation by potential threats or attackers.
19. Social engineering is ____.
- A software technique used to prevent unauthorized access to a system
- A method used to protect data from modification by unauthorized users
- A cybersecurity principle that focuses on data confidentiality
- A type of cyber-attack that manipulates human psychology to deceive individuals and gain unauthorized access
Answer: D A type of cyber-attack that manipulates human psychology to deceive individuals and gain unauthorized access.
Explanation: Social engineering is a type of cyber-attack that relies on manipulating human psychology and behavior to deceive individuals into revealing sensitive information, providing unauthorized access, or performing certain actions that compromise security.
20. What does the letter “A” stand for in the CIA triad of cybersecurity?
Answer: C Authentication
Explanation: Authentication, represented by the letter “A,” it is a crucial component of the CIA triad. It refers to the process of verifying the identity of users, systems, or entities attempting to access resources.
21. Which type of encryption uses the same key for both encryption and decryption?
- Symmetric encryption
- Asymmetric encryption
- Hybrid encryption
- Public-key encryption
Answer: A Symmetric encryption
Explanation: In symmetric encryption, the same secret key is used for both encryption and decryption of data.
22. PGP is primarily used for ____.
- Network routing and packet filtering
- Securely transferring files over FTP
- Encrypting and decrypting email messages
- Managing database access and permissions
Answer: C Encrypting and decrypting email messages.
Explanation: PGP stands for Pretty Good Privacy, and it is primarily used for encrypting and decrypting email messages. PGP is a widely used encryption software that provides a high level of security and is used for encrypting and decrypting email messages.
23. Which of the following encryption standard is used to secure Internet communications?
- AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
- RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman)
- DES (Data Encryption Standard)
- MD5 (Message Digest Algorithm 5)
Answer: A AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
Explanation: AES is widely used to secure sensitive data transmitted over the internet, such as online transactions, communication between web browsers and servers (HTTPS), and securing data stored in databases and cloud services.
24. The process of converting ciphertext back into its original plaintext is known as ____.
Answer: B Decryption
Explanation: Decryption is the reverse operation of encryption, which scrambles the plaintext to make it unintelligible to unauthorized users during transmission or storage.
25. Which key is kept private and known only to the owner in public-key encryption?
- Public key
- Secret key
- Private key
- Shared key
Answer: C Private key
Explanation: In public-key encryption (also known as asymmetric encryption), a pair of mathematically related keys are used: a public key and a private key.
26. SQL injection is a cyber-attack that targets ____.
- Social media accounts of individuals
- Web applications with poorly sanitized input fields
- Domain Name System (DNS) servers
- Internet of Things (IoT) devices
Answer: B Web applications with poorly sanitized input fields.
Explanation: SQL injection is a type of cyber-attack that targets web applications with poorly sanitized input fields. It is a widespread and critical vulnerability that occurs when an attacker can manipulate or inject malicious SQL (Structured Query Language) code into the input fields of a web application.
27. Spear-phishing is a variation of phishing that targets ____.
- A broad range of individuals and organizations
- Only high-profile individuals and celebrities
- Specific individuals or a particular organization
- Social media platforms
Answer: C Specific individuals or a particular organization.
Explanation: Spear-phishing is a variation of phishing that targets specific individuals or a particular organization. Unlike traditional phishing attacks that cast a wide net to target many potential victims, spear phishing is highly targeted and personalized.
28. What does “DoS” stands for?
- Denial of Software
- Distributed Online Security
- Data Overload Strike
- Denial of Service
Answer: D Denial of Service
Explanation: Denial of Service (DoS) is a type of cyber-attack that aims to make a service, network, or website unavailable to its legitimate users by overwhelming it with a large volume of traffic or requests.
29. Which of the following uses a combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption?
- Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
- Digital Signature
- Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
- Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) / Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Answer: C Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
Explanation: PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is a cryptographic encryption and decryption program that uses a combination of both symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms to provide secure and private communication.
30. What is the purpose of the man-in-middle attack?
- To steal sensitive data from the target system
- To overload the target system’s resources
- To deceive the user into clicking on a malicious link
- To intercept and tamper with communication between two parties
Answer: D To intercept and tamper with communication between two parties.
Explanation: The purpose of a man-in-the-middle attack is to intercept and tamper with the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
31. A cryptographic value that is generated by combining a secret key with a message is known as ____.
- Digital Signature
- Encryption Key
- Message Authentication Code (MAC)
- Public Key
Answer: C Message Authentication Code (MAC)
Explanation: A Message Authentication Code (MAC) is a cryptographic value that is generated by combining a secret key with a message to ensure message integrity and authentication.
32. A digital signature created by ____.
- By encrypting the entire message with a private key
- By appending the sender’s private key to the message
- By creating a hash of the message and encrypting it with a public key
- By combining the sender’s public key with the message
Answer: C By creating a hash of the message and encrypting it with a public key.
Explanation: A digital signature is created using a process that involves cryptographic techniques to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation of a digital message or document.
33. Which of the following options is TRUE about Message Authentication Code (MAC)?
- It should be easy to generate a MAC value from the message and key
- The same MAC value should be generated for two different messages with the same key
- The MAC value should be long and complex for better security
- It should be possible to derive the original message from the MAC value
Answer: A It should be easy to generate a MAC value from the message and key.
Explanation: MACs are designed to be efficiently computable; it should be easy and quick to generate the MAC value from the input message and the shared secret key.
34. Digital signatures are ____.
- Ensuring data confidentiality during transmission
- Preventing unauthorized access to a computer network
- Verifying the integrity and authenticity of a message
- Encrypting sensitive information in emails
Answer: C Verifying the integrity and authenticity of a message.
Explanation: Digital signatures are cryptographic mechanisms used to provide assurance regarding the authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation of digital messages or documents.
35. The purpose of an SSL certificate is to ____.
- Authenticate the identity of the server and encrypt data during transmission
- Authenticate the identity of the client and encrypt data during transmission
- Identify potential cyber threats in the network
- Filter and block malicious websites
Answer: A Authenticate the identity of the server and encrypt data during transmission.
Explanation: The purpose of an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate is to authenticate the identity of the server and encrypt data during transmission.
36. Which is a more secure and commonly used version of SSL?
- SSL 2.0
- SSL 3.0
- TLS 1.0
- TLS 1.3
Answer: D TLS 1.3
Explanation: TLS 1.3, the latest version of the TLS protocol, was standardized in August 2018 and offers significant improvements in security and performance. It provides stronger encryption algorithms, enhances forward secrecy, reduces handshake latency, and removes outdated and vulnerable features present in previous versions.
37. What does the term “defence in depth” refers to?
- Relying on a single security measure for protection
- Implementing multiple layers of security controls to mitigate risks
- Prioritizing confidentiality over availability
- Focusing solely on physical security measures
Answer: B Implementing multiple layers of security controls to mitigate risks.
Explanation: The concept of defense in depth is based on the principle that no single security measure can provide complete protection against all possible threats and vulnerabilities. By employing multiple layers, even if one layer is breached, other layers can still provide protection.
38. Amongst which of the following is an example of physical security control?
- Antivirus software
- Biometric authentication
Answer: C Biometric authentication
Explanation: Biometric authentication is an example of a physical security control as it involves using unique physical characteristics of individuals to verify their identity.
39. Insider threat is a situation where ____.
- Cybersecurity measures fail to protect the network
- An organization faces a natural disaster or physical breach
- Unauthorized users attempt to gain access to sensitive data
- Employees or individuals within an organization pose a security risk
Answer: D Employees or individuals within an organization pose a security risk.
Explanation: Insider threats can come from current or former employees, contractors, business partners, or anyone with legitimate access to sensitive information or critical infrastructure.
40. Which of the following is a type of antivirus program?
- Quick heal
- All of the above
Answer: D All of the above
Explanation: Antivirus software is designed to detect, prevent, and remove malware (such as viruses, worms, Trojans, and other malicious software) from computer systems and networks. All the listed programs are anti-virus programs.
41. What does the term “Cyber Ethics” refer to?
- The study of computer programming languages
- Ethical guidelines and principles for using computers and technology responsibly
- The process of developing secure computer networks
- The legal regulations governing cybercrimes
Answer: B Ethical guidelines and principles for using computers and technology responsibly.
Explanation: Cyber ethics seeks to address the moral dilemmas and ethical challenges that arise in cyberspace, where technology intersects with human interaction and information exchange.
42. A decoy system or network designed to attract and monitor unauthorized access attempts is known as ____.
- Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
Answer: A Honeypot
Explanation: A honeypot is a decoy or trap set up by cybersecurity professionals to attract and monitor cyber attackers. It is a simulated system or network designed to appear as a legitimate target with valuable data or resources.
43. Which of the following is not a cyber threat?
Answer: B AES
Explanation: AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is not a cyber threat; rather, it is a cryptographic algorithm used to secure and encrypt data.
44. What are Botnets?
- Networks of physical robots used for industrial automation
- Large-scale computer networks are used for scientific research
- Groups of interconnected computers controlled by a malicious actor perform coordinated cyberattacks
- Online forums for discussing topics related to robotics and artificial intelligence
Answer: C Groups of interconnected computers controlled by a malicious actor perform coordinated cyberattacks.
Explanation: A botnet is a network of compromised computers, also known as “bots” or “zombies,” that are under the control of a malicious actor, often referred to as the “botmaster” or “bot herder.”
45. What type of data is usually stored in a honeypot?
- Sensitive user information and passwords
- Classified government documents
- Fake data and logs mimic a real system
- All the encrypted data from the organization
Answer: C Fake data and logs mimic a real system.
Explanation: To achieve its goal effectively, a honeypot typically stores fake or simulated data that mimics a real system. This data can include fabricated user accounts, non-sensitive information, and system logs that appear genuine.
46. In which layer, vulnerabilities are directly associated with physical access to networks and hardware?
Answer: A Physical
Explanation: Vulnerabilities at the physical layer could include unauthorized physical access to network devices or hardware, such as routers, switches, servers, and cabling.
47. Which technology is commonly used by VPNs to establish secure connections?
Answer: B SSL
Explanation: SSL can be used as a component in some VPN implementations to provide secure communications.
48. Which type of cyberattack directly impacts data integrity?
- Phishing attacks
- Ransomware attacks
- Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks
- Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks
Answer: B Ransomware attacks
Explanation: Since ransomware encrypts the victim’s data, it directly impacts data integrity by making the data unusable and inaccessible to the owner.
49. Amongst which of the following is not a common VPN protocol?
Answer: C HTTPS
Explanation: HTTPS is not a VPN protocol but rather an extension of HTTP. It is used to secure data transmission between a user’s web browser and a website server.
50. Which of the following best describes the role of a Security Operations Center (SOC) in the field of cybersecurity?
- A physical facility that stores sensitive data and information
- A team of cybersecurity professionals responsible for developing software applications
- A centralized unit that monitors, detects, and responds to security incidents in real time
- A set of guidelines and policies for safe internet usage in an organization
Answer: C A centralized unit that monitors, detects, and responds to security incidents in real time.
Explanation: The SOC’s primary role is to detect security breaches, respond to incidents promptly, and mitigate cyber threats to ensure the organization’s data and systems remain secure.