300+ TOP Modern Social Theories MCQs with Answers Quiz

Modern Social Theories Multiple Choice Questions

1. Verstehen approach was developed by

A. Auguste Comte
B. Max Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton

Answer: B. Max Weber

2. Which of the following had profoundly conservative implications for early American sociology?

A. the French revolution
B. the Civil War
C. the Vietnam War
D. the political liberation of early Sociologists

Answer: D. the political liberation of early Sociologists

3. According to Lester Ward, applied sociology was intended to:

A. use scientific knowledge to better society.
B. make sociology more scientific through lots of practice.
C. base sociology on common sense.
D. combat the evils of postmodernism.

Answer: A. use scientific knowledge to better society.

4. Charles Horton Cooley is known for which of the following ideas?

A. class conflict
B. the looking-glass self
C. micro-macro integration
D. social solidarity

Answer: B. the looking-glass self

5. ______________ is the most important thinker associated with the Chicago school and symbolic interactionism.

A. Robert Merton
B. W.E.B. Du Bois
C. Thorstein Veblen
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: D. George Herbert Mead

6. The book “ The Elementary Forms of Religious Life”was written by

A. Max Weber
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Auguste Comte
D. Max Weber

Answer: B. Emile Durkheim

7. Which one of the following approaches mainly focuses on Consciousness

A. Ethnomethodology
B. Comparative method
C. Phenomenology
D. Functionlism

Answer: C. Phenomenology

8. Looking glass Self theory was developed by

A. G.H.Mead
B. Erving Goffmn
C. C.H.Cooley
D. Alfred Schutz

Answer: C. C.H.Cooley

9. Double-consciousness is a key theoretical idea of:

A. Jane Addams.
B. Anthony Giddens.
C. Alfred Schutz.
D. W.E.B. Du Bois.

Answer: D. W.E.B. Du Bois.

10. Talcott Parsons is known as a(n):

A. structural-functionalist.
B. micro-macro structuralist.
C. . agency-structure determinist.
D. proponent of the Chicago School.

Answer: A. structural-functionalist.

11. Who is the author of the book “ Protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism”

A. Max Weber
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Auguste Comte
D. Max Weber

Answer: A. Max Weber

12. Erving Goffman was associated with

A. Ehnomethodology
B. Functionalism
C. Dramaturgy
D. neo-functionalism

Answer: C. Dramaturgy

13. Name the author of the book” Mind, Self and Society”

A. G.H.Mead
B. Herbert Blumer
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton

Answer: A. G.H.Mead

14. Which of the following sociological theorists is best known for his sociology of knowledge?

A. Karl Mannheim
B. Talcott Parsons
C. Lester Ward
D. Jeffrey Alexander

Answer: A. Karl Mannheim

15. Which of the following thinkers is known as a radical sociologist?

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Talcott Parsons
C. George Homans
D. C. Wright Mills

Answer: D. C. Wright Mills

16. Conflict theory emerged as a(n):

A. critique of feminist theory.
B. alternative to Anthony Giddens’s structuration theory.
C. Alternative to structural-functionalism.
D. critique of postmodernism.

Answer: C. Alternative to structural-functionalism.

17. Exchange theory was pioneered by which of the following theorists?

A. . Talcott Parsons
B. Alfred Schutz
C. Lewis Coser
D. George Homans

Answer: D. George Homans

18. Which of the following thinkers pioneered dramaturgical analysis?

A. . Charlotte Perkins Gilman
B. . Robert Park
C. . Karl Mannheim
D. . Erving Goffman

Answer: D. . Erving Goffman

19. Alfred Schutz is known as a(n) _______________ sociologist.

A. .African-American
B. neo-Marxian
C. postmodern
D. phenomenological

Answer: D. phenomenological

20. Ethnomethodology is known as a(n):

A. sociology of everyday life.
B. attack on phenomenology.
C. attack on Herbert Spencer.
D. fusion of Marx and Weber.

Answer: A. sociology of everyday life.

21. ___________ is considered the major representative of poststructuralism.

A. .Claude Lèvi-Strauss
B. .Jurgen Habermas
C. .Michel Foucault
D. .Richard Emerson

Answer: C. .Michel Foucault

22. How does feminist theory look at the world?

A. .with great contempt
B. from the vantage points of women
C. .from the vantage points of deep structures of the mind
D. . from a mostly Freudian point of view

Answer: B. from the vantage points of women

23. Which of the following theorists views modernity as an “unfinished project”?

A. Jurgen Habermas
B. Jeffrey Alexander
C. James Coleman
D. Jean Baudrillard

Answer: A. Jurgen Habermas

24. Which of the following is NOT one of Talcott Parsons’s functional imperatives?

A. adaptation
B. integration
C. goal attainment
D. personality system

Answer: D. personality system

25. In Talcott Parsons’s work, the behavioral organism handles the ___________function.

A. integrative
B. exploitative
C. reproductive
D. adaptation

Answer: D. adaptation

26. Which of the following is NOT one of Talcott Parsons’s action systems?

A. the cultural system
B. the latent system
C. the social system
D. the personality system

Answer: B. the latent system

27. The idea of dysfunction was put forward by

A. Robert K Merton
B. Emile Durkheim
C. Auguste Comte
D. Erving Goffman

Answer: A. Robert K Merton

28. Which Sociologist developed the idea of pattern variables

A. Auguste Comte
B. Max Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton

Answer: C. Talcott Parsons

29. Name the author of the book “ The Structure of social action”

A. Auguste Comte
B. Max Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Robert K Merton

Answer: C. Talcott Parsons

30. The basic unit within Talcott Parsons’s social system is the:

A. allocative-integrative process.
B. hierarchy of conditioning factors.
C. status-role complex.
D. environment boundary maintenance.

Answer: C. status-role complex.

31. For Parsons, the _________________ process helped to ensure that an actor’s pursuit of his/her own interests also served the interests of the system as a whole.

A. social control
B. exploitation
C. socialization
D. role

Answer: C. socialization

32. Parsons argued that _____________ was the major binding force between various elements of the social world.

A. society
B. the economy
C. the fiduciary system
D. culture

Answer: D. culture

33. The functionalist theory of stratification argues that:

A. stratification is functional for individuals.
B. it is functional for the best jobs to have very high rewards.
C. it is functional for the worst jobs to have the worst rewards.
D. stratification is functional for society as a whole.

Answer: D. stratification is functional for society as a whole.

34. Unlike the structural functionalists, the neofunctionalists gave as much attention to _____________ as to order.

A. action
B. disorder
C. norms
D. roles

Answer: A. action

35. Dahrendorf felt that authority rested with:

A. individuals.
B. organizations.
C. positions.
D. technology.

Answer: C. positions.

36. consider a major influence on the development of neo-Marxian theory?

A. Emile Durkheim
B. Max Weber
C. Sigmund Freud
D. Michel Foucault

Answer: A. Emile Durkheim

37. Unlike the critical school and the Hegelian Marxists, work in both Marxianinfluenced economic sociology and historical sociology focused on which of the following dimensions of Marx’s work?

A. cognitive
B. materialist
C. ideational
D. spatial

Answer: B. materialist

38. According to some of the theorists of the critical school, domination moved from the economic to the ______________ sphere.

A. political
B. spatial
C. ecological
D. cultural

Answer: D. cultural

39. The critical school offered critiques of which of the following two “industries”?

A. culture and manufacturing
B. knowledge and manufacturing
C. culture and knowledge
D. knowledge and communication

Answer: C. culture and knowledge

40. For the critical school, modern society was rational, but not:

A. productive.
B. cultured.
C. reasonable.
D. predictable.

Answer: C. reasonable.

41. In much the same way that Marx felt that labor was alienated, _________________ felt that communication was alienated, or distorted.

A. David Harvey
B. Immanuel Wallerstein
C. Jurgen Habermas
D. John Roemer

Answer: C. Jurgen Habermas

42. Members of which of the following variants of Marxian theory most strongly distance themselves from their Marxian roots?

A. the critical school
B. Hegelian Marxism
C. historical Marxism
D. analytical Marxism

Answer: D. analytical Marxism

43. Members of which of the following variants of neo-Marxian theory are concerned with the “micro-level” foundations of Marxian theory?

A. historical Marxism
B. analytical Marxism
C. Hegelian Marxism
D. critical theory

Answer: D. critical theory

44. Thinkers who can be clearly identified as sociologists began to appear in the:

A. 1600s.
B. 1700s.
C. 1800s.
D. 1900s.

Answer: C. 1800s.

45. In his lectures at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo in the 1300s, ____________ devoted considerable attention to social institutions such as politics and the economy.

A. Ibn-Khaldun
B. Saint-Simon
C. Sun Tzu
D. Tariq Ali

Answer: A. Ibn-Khaldun

46. In 1789 the French Revolution caused many social thinkers to be disturbed by the resulting _________, and it created a desire to restore ______________.

A. democracy; the monarchy to power
B. regime change; the ancien regime
C. social dynamics; social statics to society
D. chaos; order to society

Answer: D. chaos; order to society

47. Early sociologists wanted to model sociology after the prestigious and influential disciplines of:

A. economics, history, and philosophy.
B. physics, biology and chemistry.
C. anthropology, criminology, and psychology.
D. electrical, chemical, and civil engineering.

Answer: B. physics, biology and chemistry.

48. The ____________ was a period of intellectual development and change characterized by the belief that people could comprehend and control the universe by means of reason and empirical research.

A. Renaissance
B. Industrial Revolution
C. Enlightenment
D. Golden Age

Answer: C. Enlightenment

49. __________ believe in studying social phenomena using the same scientific techniques as those used in the natural sciences.

A. Logicians
B. Positivists
C. Pragmatists
D. Anglophiles

Answer: B. Positivists

50. According to Auguste Comte, groups, societies, sciences, and individuals all go through the following three stages:

A. primary, secondary, and tertiary
B. primative, premodern, and modern
C. theological, metaphysical, and positivistic
D. feudal, capitalist, and socialist

Answer: C. theological, metaphysical, and positivistic

51. Emile Durkheim believed that ___________ is not a necessary part of the modern world and that it could be reduced by ____________.

A. inequality; redistribution of wealth
B. deviance; education
C. religion; science
D. social disorder; social reform reformism.

Answer: D. social disorder; social reform reformism.

52. G.W.F. Hegel’s philosophy of ___________ emphasized the importance of the mind and mental products rather than the material world.

A. monadism
B. spiritualism
C. idealism
D. utilitarianism

Answer: C. idealism

53. _______ is the breakdown of the natural interconnection among people and between people and what they produce.

A. Trepidation
B. Alienation
C. Decomposition
D. Commodification

Answer: B. Alienation

54. Weber was interested in the general issue of why institutions in the Western world had grown progressively more ____________ while power barriers seemed to prevent a similar development in the rest of the world.

A. rational
B. irrational
C. corrupt
D. powerful

Answer: A. rational

55. Georg Simmel was best known for his thinking on:

A. large-scale social issues like capitalism and exploitation.
B. contemporary social problems like Anti-Semitism and racism.
C. smaller-scale issues like individual action and interaction.
D. interplanetary travel and extraterrestrial societies.

Answer: C. smaller-scale issues like individual action and interaction.

56. Which of the following classical thinkers is credited for being the first to use the term “sociology”?

A. Karl Marx
B. Max Weber
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Auguste Comte

Answer: D. Auguste Comte

57. Which of the following is NOT one of the strengths of systems theory?

A. its dynamism
B. its focus on processes
C. its multileveled approach
D. its complexity

Answer: D. its complexity

58. A general principle of systems theory holds that ________ systems intervene between environments and the action of systems.

A. morphic
B. Delphic
C. mediating
D. purposive

Answer: C. mediating

59. The notion of feedback enables theorists to deal with:

A. loud noises.
B. time-space elaboration.
C. friction, growth, and sudden changes in the environment.
D. magnetic hysterisis.

Answer: C. friction, growth, and sudden changes in the environment.

60. George Herbert Mead’s work was influenced by which of the following two approaches?

A. positivism and pragmatism
B. behaviorism and pragmatism
C. positivism and behaviorism
D. behaviorism and biology

Answer: B. behaviorism and pragmatism

61. Which of the following theorists coined the term symbolic interactionism?

A. Erving Goffman
B. Herbert Blumer
C. Georg Simmel
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: B. Herbert Blumer

62. In his work Mind, Self and Society, Mead gave priority to:

A. the self.
B. the mind.
C. society.
D. institutions.

Answer: C. society.

63. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic stages of what Mead calls “the act”?

A. impulse
B. perception
C. manipulation
D. significant symbols

Answer: D. significant symbols

64. It is only through ___________ that language and human thinking are possible.

A. vocal gestures
B. impulses
C. physical gestures
D. significant symbols

Answer: D. significant symbols

65. _____________ is the general mechanism for the development of the self.

A. Reflexivity
B. Gesture
C. Impulse
D. Human nature

Answer: A. Reflexivity

66. Children learn to take the attitude of particular others to themselves during the ____________ stage.

A. game
B. social
C. primary
D. play

Answer: A. game

67. Mead refers to the ability to take the attitude of the entire community into account as:

A. the generalized other.
B. impression management.
C. pragmatism.
D. the looking-glass self.

Answer: A. the generalized other.

68. According to Mead, ____________ behavior is the thinking process, involving symbols and meanings.

A. overt
B. covert
C. front stage
D. back stage

Answer: B. covert

69. _____________ refers to those things that tell us a performer’s social status, while ____________ tells the audience what sort of role a performer expects to play in a given situation.

A. Manner; appearance
B. Manner; scene
C. Appearance; manner
D. Appearance; scene

Answer: C. Appearance; manner

70. The basic unit of analysis in Erving Goffman’s theory is:

A. the team.
B. the individual.
C. society.
D. the gesture.

Answer: A. the team.

71. Social actors engage in the process of mystification in order to do all of the following EXCEPT:

A. generate social distance between themselves and their audience.
B. keep their audience from questioning their performance.
C. create a sense of awe in their audience.
D. become emotionally connected to their audience.

Answer: D. become emotionally connected to their audience.

72. Which of the following statements correctly characterizes Goffman’s work later in his career?

A. Goffman became more cynical of social life.
B. Goffman focused more on small-scale structures.
C. Goffman defined action more as an active and creative process.
D. Goffman became convinced that dramaturgy was the best way to understand social life.

Answer: B. Goffman focused more on small-scale structures.

73. Which of the following does NOT characterize Herbert Blumer’s theory of symbolic interactionism?

A. The essence of society is found in actors and action.
B. Society is made up of macro structures.
C. Large-scale structures emerge from micro processes.
D. Collective action gives rise to joint action.

Answer: B. Society is made up of macro structures.

74. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of symbolic interactionism?

A. It has too readily given up on conventional scientific techniques.
B. It has downplayed large-scale social structures.
C. It has not been sufficiently microscopic.
D. It has concentrated too much on psychological factors.

Answer: D. It has concentrated too much on psychological factors.

75. Cultural studies’ scholars argue that symbolic interactionism should focus more attention on:

A. communication technologies.
B. children.
C. consumption.
D. the Other.

Answer: A. communication technologies.

76. According to ethnomethodologists, social actors use ____________ to accomplish their everyday lives.

A. formal logic
B. practical reasoning
C. empirical research
D. conscious processes

Answer: B. practical reasoning

77. ___________________ was the founder of ethnomethodology.

A. Erving Goffman
B. Max Weber
C. Herbert Blumer
D. Harold Garfinkel

Answer: D. Harold Garfinkel

78. Which of the following is the term that ethnomethodologists use to describe the ways in which social actors explain specific situations?

A. accounts
B. hermenuetics
C. emotions
D. rituals

Answer: A. accounts

79. Which of the following is NOT a working principle of conversation analysis?

A. Nonverbal behaviors are inconsequential to accomplishing a conversation.
B. The fundamental framework of a conversation is its sequential organization.
C. The collection and analysis of detailed data is critical to studying a conversation fully.
D. Conversations are managed on a turn-by-turn basis.

Answer: A. Nonverbal behaviors are inconsequential to accomplishing a conversation.

80. With which of the following statements would an ethnomethodologist agree?

A. Gender is something that social actors are born with.
B. Gender is something that social actors accomplish.
C. Gender is not a significant variable to study, because it never changes.
D. Gender can be studied only through analyses of verbal conversations.

Answer: B. Gender is something that social actors accomplish.

81. Which of the following do conversation analysts consider most important to study?

A. the relationship between speakers and hearers engaged in a conversation
B. the social context of a conversation
C. the relationships among utterances in a conversation
D. the motives of speakers and hearers engaged in a conversation

Answer: C. the relationships among utterances in a conversation

82. How is laughter typically initiated in multiparty interactions?

A. by the speaker at the end of her utterance
B. by the speaker in the middle of one of her sentences
C. by the speaker in the beginning of her utterance
D. by someone other than the speaker

Answer: D. by someone other than the speaker

83. During a political speech, a politician argues that “too much time is devoted to international policy…too little is spent on domestic policy.” This is an example of which of the following types of rhetorical devices used to generate applause?

A. contrast
B. list
C. headline-punch line
D. puzzle solution

Answer: A. contrast

84. Which of the following is the most common type of rhetorical device used to generate applause?

A. pursuit
B. position taking
C. contrast
D. list

Answer: C. contrast

85. According to conversation analysts, which of the following is typically true of disagreements?

A. They require no special explanation.
B. They are delayed responses.
C. They are produced in an unqualified manner.
D. They are followed by an apology.

Answer: B. They are delayed responses.

86. ____________ are defined as part of a conversation used to describe that conversation.

A. Accounts
B. Puzzle solutions
C. Setting-talks
D. Formulations

Answer: D. Formulations

87. Shy people tend to engage in _____________ more often than those who are self-confident.

A. accounting
B. formulating
C. setting-talk
D. contrasting

Answer: C. setting-talk

88. Which of the following is NOT something an interviewer would typically do to prevent an interviewee from returning to or correcting her question?

A. indicate that the interview is over
B. ask another question that moves the interview in an different direction
C. assess the answer given in a way that prevents the interviewee from returning to the question
D. engage in setting-talk

Answer: D. engage in setting-talk

89. Conversation analysts have found that mishaps encountered during emergency telephone calls are a result of:

A. untrained dispatchers.
B. the caller’s irrational state of mind.
C. static over the phone lines.
D. the nature of the specific telephone conversation.

Answer: D. the nature of the specific telephone conversation.

90. Ethnomethodologists are critical of traditional sociologists because the latter tend to:

A. rely too much on statistical analysis of data.
B. concentrate too much on everyday social practices.
C. focus on the real world rather than on the constructed wor

Answer: A. rely too much on statistical analysis of data.

91. According to ethnomethodologists, conventional sociologists look at everyday speech as a(n):

A. resource.
B. formulation.
C. topic.
D. account.

Answer: A. resource.

92. Ethnomethodology has been subject to criticism because it:

A. pays too much attention to the role of motives in social interaction.
B. has become too focused on its phenomenological roots.
C. has lost sight of its radical reflexivity.
D. dismisses structural properties of speech acts.

Answer: C. has lost sight of its radical reflexivity.

93. In terms of the micro-macro debate, ethnomethodologists argue that:

A. micro-level phenomena are more important to study than macro-level structures.
B. micro and macro structures are generated simultaneously.
C. macro structures determine micro-level social interactions.
D. sociologists should stop attempting to make micro-macro linkages.

Answer: B. micro and macro structures are generated simultaneously.

94. For Jeffrey Alexander, normative, non-rational, and affective actions constitute ____________ dimensions of his multidimensional sociology.

A. materialist
B. non-material
C. macro
D. micro

Answer: B. non-material

95. Alexander believed that according privilege to the ________________ level was a “theoretical mistake.”

A. micro
B. macro
C. subjective
D. objective

Answer: A. micro

96. George Ritzer’s attempts at an integrated sociological paradigm can be differentiated from Alexander’s multidimensional sociology because:

A. Alexander does not use an equivalent objective-subjective continuum.
B. Alexander does not use an equivalent micro-macro continuum.
C. Alexander privileges one level over another.
D. Alexander’s dimensions are either/or, not continuums.

Answer: C. Alexander privileges one level over another.

97. Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic ways to describe macro phenomena?

A. aggregation
B. structural
C. integrative
D. global

Answer: C. integrative

98. Randall Collins’s “interactional ritual chains” are an example of focusing on the _____________ level of analysis.

A. micro
B. macro
C. meso
D. system

Answer: A. micro

99. For Anthony Giddens, social structure is composed of:

A. the objective positions within a field.
B. networks of exchange relations.
C. systems of oppression and domination.
D. the structuring properties of rules and resources.

Answer: D. the structuring properties of rules and resources.

100. _____________ consciousness entails the ability to describe our actions in words, whereas ___________ consciousness involves actions that the actors take for granted without being able to express what they are doing.

A. Discursive; practical
B. Practical; discursive
C. Discursive; su
D. Oral; practical

Answer: A. Discursive; practical

101. According to Giddens, intentional actions produce:

A. risk.
B. structure.
C. unintended consequences.
D. social systems.

Answer: C. unintended consequences.

102. Giddens thinks that social structure can be both:

A. dominating and oppressive.
B. constraining and enabling.
C. stable and unstable.
D. recursive and practical.

Answer: B. constraining and enabling.

103. _____________ is the process by which complex interchanges lead not only to changes in the structure of the system but also to structural elaboration.

A. Morphostasis
B. Metamorphosis
C. Morphogenesis
D. Metagenesis

Answer: C. Morphogenesis

104. Archer criticizes Giddens for neglecting the __________ of culture and structure.

A. interrelations
B. duality
C. mutual constitution
D. relative autonomy

Answer: D. relative autonomy

105. Pierre Bourdieu refers to his perspective as:

A. structuralist constructivism.
B. post-constructivism.
C. genetic capitalism.
D. field theory.

Answer: A. structuralist constructivism.

106. Which of the following reflect(s) objective divisions in the social structure, such as age groups, genders, and social classes?

A. exchange networks
B. practice
C. fields
D. habitus

Answer: D. habitus

107. According to Bourdieu, the most important of all fields is:

A. economic.
B. political.
C. cultural.
D. social.

Answer: B. political.

108. Art, education, and religion are examples of:

A. tastes.
B. fields.
C. distinctions.
D. symbolic capital.

Answer: D. symbolic capital.

109. Tastes are conditioned by class relationships and _____________ relationships.

A. cultural
B. political
C. social
D. exchange

Answer: A. cultural

110. Drawing on ______________, the idea of the life-world involves a range of unspoken presuppositions about mutual understandings that must exist for communication to take place.

A. structural-functionalism
B. cybernetics
C. phenomenology
D. ethnography

Answer: C. phenomenology

111. According to Habermas, the system is becoming increasingly ___________ by delinguistified media.

A. monetized and bureaucratized
B. mediated and controlled
C. practical and discursive
D. democratized and equalized

Answer: A. monetized and bureaucratized

112. According to Habermas, the most urgent dilemma of the contemporary world is that the ___________ is being colonized by the ___________.

A. system; life-world
B. habitus; field
C. life-world; system
D. field; habitus

Answer: C. life-world; system

113. ___________ tend to be involved with micro-macro theory, whereas ____________ tend to produce agency-structure theory.

A. Europeans; Americans
B. Americans; Europeans
C. Sociologists; Anthropologists
D. Anthropologists; Sociologists

Answer: B. Americans; Europeans

114. Agency-structure theory tends to have a(n) ____________ perspective, whereas micro-macro-theory is more likely to be ____________.

A. historical; static
B. static; historical
C. hierarchical; static
D. static; hierarchical

Answer: A. historical; static

115. Who among the following coined the term ‘symbolic interactionism’?

A. Herbert Blumer
B. Sigmund Freud
C. H Cooley
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: A. Herbert Blumer

116. The dramaturgical model for the analysis of social interaction was developed by

A. Erving Goffman
B. Sigmund Freud
C. H Cooley
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: A. Erving Goffman

117. One of the major concept in social darwinism

A. Struggle for existence
B. Survival of the fittest
C. Organic analogy
D. Natural selection

Answer: B. Survival of the fittest

118. Who postulated the theory of social Darwinism?

A. Herbert Spencer
B. Saint – Simon
C. Auguste Comte
D. Karl Marx

Answer: A. Herbert Spencer

119. Anthony Giddens has described the modern world as a:

A. juggernaut.
B. plutocracy.
C. demagogue.
D. barbarian.

Answer: A. juggernaut.

120. According to Giddens, which of the following institutions does NOT characterize modernity?

A. capitalism
B. industrialism
C. surveillance capacities
D. collective identities

Answer: D. collective identities

121. Which of the following is the term that Giddens uses to describe the prevalence in modernity of relationships with those who are physically absent and increasingly distant?

A. disembedding
B. reflexivity
C. distanciation
D. radicalization

Answer: C. distanciation

122. ____________ is the “lifting out” of social relations from local contexts of interaction and their restructuring across indefinite spans of time-space.

A. Distanciation
B. Disembedding
C. Reflexivity
D. Radicalization

Answer: B. Disembedding

123. ____________ means that social practices are constantly examined and reformed in the light of incoming information about those very practices.

A. Disembedding
B. Distanciation
C. Reflexivity
D. Radicalization

Answer: C. Reflexivity

124. To which of the following would the negative consequences of the juggernaut of modernity NOT be attributed?

A. design flaws
B. operator failure
C. unintended consequences
D. natural disasters

Answer: D. natural disasters

125. According to Ulrich Beck, __________ are being produced by the sources of wealth in modern society.

A. risks
B. dysfunctions
C. pathologies
D. dependencies

Answer: A. risks

126. Beck blames ____________ for becoming the protectors of a global contamination of people and nature.

A. capitalists
B. politicians
C. consumers
D. scientists

Answer: D. scientists

127. Which of the following is NOT a component of formal rationality?

A. efficiency
B. predictability
C. quantifiability
D. adaptability

Answer: D. adaptability

128. Means of _____________ are defined as those things that make it possible for people to acquire goods and services and for the same people to be controlled and exploited as consumers.

A. consumption
B. acquisition
C. exploitation
D. production

Answer: A. consumption

129. Structuralism is rooted in the underlying structures governing:

A. politics.
B. economics.
C. culture.
D. language.

Answer: D. language.

130. Ferdinand de Saussure’s concept of parole refers to:

A. sign and symbol systems.
B. what prisoners get for good behavior.
C. the actual way people use language.
D. the rules that govern language.

Answer: C. the actual way people use language.

131. The term semiotics refers to the study of:

A. robots that drive.
B. language used on traffic signs.
C. signs in linguistics.
D. all sign and symbol systems.

Answer: D. all sign and symbol systems.

132. Which of the following theorists applied structuralism to anthropology?

A. Louis Althusser
B. Claude Lévi-Strauss
C. Roland Barthes
D. Maurice Godelier

Answer: B. Claude Lévi-Strauss

133. Jacques Derrida looked at social institutions and saw:

A. language.
B. writing.
C. coercion.
D. economics.

Answer: B. writing.

134. The term logocentrism refers to:

A. the use of logos to sell products.
B. the underlying rules of language that dictate how it is used.
C. the search for a universal system of thought that reveals truth.
D. the way theatre is controlled and enslaved.

Answer: C. the search for a universal system of thought that reveals truth.

135. Which of the following thinkers is NOT associated with structuralism?

A. Ferdinand Saussare
B. Louis Althusser
C. Claude Lévi-Strauss
D. Jacques Derrida

Answer: D. Jacques Derrida

136. Foucault thought that archaeology was a necessary first step towards:

A. genealogy of power.
B. discourse analysis.
C. clinics and medicine.
D. deconstruction.

Answer: A. genealogy of power.

137. Foucault interprets the rise of psychology as a:

A. scientific endeavor.
B. humanitarian advance.
C. moral enterprise.
D. medical advancement.

Answer: C. moral enterprise.

138. Foucault considered the gaze as:

A. a language without words.
B. the precursor to punishment.
C. the genealogy of vision.
D. the birth of the clinic.

Answer: A. a language without words.

139. Which of the following is NOT one of Foucault’s instruments of disciplinary power?

A. hierarchical observation
B. normalizing judgments
C. trajectories
D. examinations

Answer: C. trajectories

140. Which of the following terms refers to cultural products?

A. postmodern social theory
B. postmodernity
C. postmodernism
D. post-postmodernism

Answer: C. postmodernism

141. Which of the following authors is NOT associated with postmodernism?

A. Frederic Jameson
B. Michel Foucault
C. Jean Baudrillard
D. Jean-François Lyotard

Answer: A. Frederic Jameson

142. Frederic Jameson associated postmodern culture with ______________ capitalism.

A. market
B. monopoly
C. imperialist
D. multinational

Answer: D. multinational

143. Jameson sees cultural change as a function of changes in:

A. language.
B. economic structure.
C. surveillance.
D. space.

Answer: B. economic structure.

144. Which of the following is NOT one of Jameson’s critiques of postmodernism?

A. Postmodernism is superficial.
B. Postmodernism is characterized by a waning of emotion or affect.
C. Postmodern life is fragmented.
D. There is an increasing reliance on history in postmodernism

Answer: D. There is an increasing reliance on history in postmodernism

145. Jean Baudrillard attempts to break from using bourgeois categories of analysis by promoting:

A. simulacra.
B. cathedrals of consumption.
C. the theatre of cruelty.
D. symbolic exchange.

Answer: D. symbolic exchange.

146. Life world is a concept associated with the works of:

A. Coser
B. Karl Marx
C. Weber
D. Habermas

Answer: D. Habermas

147. Indexicality is a concept used in the theory of:

A. Phenomenology
B. Structural Functionalism
C. Critical Theory
D. Ethnomethodology

Answer: D. Ethnomethodology

148. Ralf Dahrendorf is well known for his contributions of:

A. Conflict Theory
B. Critical Theory
C. Functionalism
D. Ethnomethodology

Answer: A. Conflict Theory

149. Who among the following is a symbolic interactionalist ?

A. Karl Marx
B. Marx Weber
C. Talcott Parsons
D. G H Mead

Answer: D. G H Mead

150. According to Durkheim, —– are external to the individual

A. Social facts
B. Social solidarity
C. Social justice
D. Social sanction

Answer: A. Social facts

151. Durkheim maintained that in order to study social facts, it should be considered as

A. Abstracts
B. Things
C. Facts
D. Pathological

Answer: B. Things

152. According to Durkheim, the study of the form and structure of societies and its classification based on attributes can be called as

A. Social pathology
B. Social phenomenology
C. Social morphology
D. Social psychology

Answer: C. Social morphology

153. In Parsons theory of structural functionalism oriented problems are known as ________________

A. AGIL
B. System
C. Conflict
D. Functionalism

Answer: A. AGIL

154. Critical theory is associated with the ______________school.

A. Frankfurt
B. Chicago
C. Conflict
D. None of these

Answer: A. Frankfurt

155. Jefrey C Alexander is a __________

A. Functionalist
B. Neo functionalist
C. Structural functionalist
D. Conflict theorist

Answer: B. Neo functionalist

156. Definition of Situation is a concept developed by ____________________

A. W .I Thomas
B. Cooley
C. Weber
D. Parson

Answer: A. W .I Thomas

157. Normative functionalism in the contribution of __________________

A. Alexander
B. Parson
C. Blumer
D. Merton

Answer: B. Parson

158. Micro functionalism proposed by ________________

A. Brown
B. Merton
C. Dahrendorf
D. Parsons

Answer: B. Merton

159. Symbolic interactionalism related to ______________

A. Marx
B. Weber
C. Coser
D. Blumer

Answer: D. Blumer

160. Dialectical conflict is proposed by ____________

A. Dahrendorf
B. Weber
C. Plato
D. Bulmer

Answer: A. Dahrendorf

161. Frankfurt school is basically related with the___________ perspective

A. Critical
B. Conflict
C. Ideological
D. None of these

Answer: A. Critical

162. Phenomenology has its origin in _________________

A. Japan
B. India
C. Germany
D. France

Answer: D. France

163. Conflict functionalism is a contribution of _______________

A. Coser
B. Marx
C. Weber
D. Alexander

Answer: A. Coser

164. The theoretical system of Frankfurt school is essentially:

A. Frankfurt oriented
B. Conflict oriented
C. Structural oriented
D. Interaction oriented

Answer: B. Conflict oriented

165. Who called structural functionalism as overly narrow:

A. Alexander and Colomy
B. Colomy and Turner
C. Seidman and Colomy
D. Seidman and Dahrendorf

Answer: A. Alexander and Colomy

166. The individual comes to know about himself is:

A. Role taking
B. Role playing
C. Role conflict
D. Role model

Answer: A. Role taking

167. The proponent of the concept of Looking glass self is:

A. G H Mead
B. Goffman
C. W. I Thomas
D. C. H. Cooley

Answer: D. C. H. Cooley

168. Self is a product of _______________

A. Society
B. Culture
C. Man
D. Peer group

Answer: A. Society

169. —— posits the idea that every economic order grows to a state of maximum efficiency, while at the same time developing internal contradictions/ weaknesses that contribute to its decay

A. Historical materialism
B. Dialectical materialism
C. Economic determinism
D. Historical determinism

Answer: B. Dialectical materialism

170. According to Marx, anything in the external world that is used to produce material needs and maintain existence is termed as

A. Mode of production
B. Forces of production
C. Relations of production
D. Means of production

Answer: D. Means of production

171. In Marx’s view, the factor that binds one class to another is

A. Mode of production
B. Forces of production
C. Means of production
D. Relations of production

Answer: D. Relations of production

172. The capacity for thought is shaped by ________

A. Personality
B. Self
C. Individual
D. Culture

Answer: B. Self

173. ______________is the process by which people offer accounts in order to make sense of the world

A. Reflexitivity
B. Accounting
C. Indexicality
D. Experiment

Answer: B. Accounting

174. Neo functionalism is a scientific study about ____________

A. Society
B. Individual
C. Culture
D. Social institution

Answer: A. Society

175. According to parsons __________ is the mechanism that bridges institutionalization and internalization

A. Accucultuation
B. Socialization
C. Assimilation
D. Symbolization

Answer: A. Accucultuation

176. Name an eminent proponent of phenomenology

A. Hussel
B. Mead
C. Garfunkel
D. Blumer

Answer: A. Hussel

177. Who is the author of’ The structure of Social Action’?

A. Parson
B. Mead
C. Cooley
D. Weber

Answer: A. Parson

178. For parson, a society is in a state of ____________

A. Equilibrium
B. Functionalism
C. Independent
D. Dependent

Answer: A. Equilibrium

179. Jeffry Alexander contributed ___________________

A. Structuralism
B. Functionalism
C. Conflict perspective
D. Neo-functionalism

Answer: D. Neo-functionalism

180. The historical materialism is the contribution of ________________

A. Talcott Parson
B. Karl Marx
C. Max Weber
D. G. H. Mead

Answer: B. Karl Marx

181. ______________ investigates the systematic bracketing of all existing assumption regarding the external world

A. Functionalism
B. Ethonomethodology
C. Structuralism
D. Phenomenology

Answer: D. Phenomenology

182. Marx called the distinctive method for the analysis of the historical development of society as

A. Conflict approach
B. Neo-Marxist theories
C. Historical materialism
D. Dialectical materialism

Answer: C. Historical materialism

183. —- had a dominant intellectual influence on Karl Marx

A. Auguste Comte
B. Hegel
C. Max Weber
D. George Simmel

Answer: B. Hegel

184. According to Karl Marx the present state will

A. Continue for long
B. Will wither away
C. Deliver goods with the passage of time
D. Slowly benefit the workers

Answer: B. Will wither away

185. Marx’s focus on real, existing contradictions led to a particular method for studying social phenomena called

A. Dialectical method
B. Economic determinism
C. Causality
D. Class conflict

Answer: A. Dialectical method

186. The theoretical foundation of Marxism is known as

A. Dialectical materialism
B. Historical materialism
C. Class struggle
D. Class consciousness

Answer: A. Dialectical materialism

187. According to Karl Marx, the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of

A. Economic determinism
B. Exploitation
C. Class struggles
D. Alienation

Answer: C. Class struggles

188. The mode of production existed in primitive communities in which ownership of land was communal is known as

A. Ancient mode of production
B. Capitalist mode of production
C. Feudal mode of production
D. Asiatic mode of production

Answer: D. Asiatic mode of production

189. The mode of production characterised by the emergence of private property is —

A. Ancient mode of production
B. Capitalist mode of production
C. Feudal mode of production
D. Asiatic mode of production

Answer: A. Ancient mode of production

190. The relationship between those who own the means of production (the capitalists or bourgeoisie) and those who do not (the workers or the proletariat) is called

A. Forces of production
B. Relations of production
C. Means of production
D. Exploitation

Answer: B. Relations of production

191. According to Marx, history evolves through the interaction between

A. Means of production and surplus value
B. Means of production and mode of production
C. Mode of production and relations of production
D. Means of production and relations of production

Answer: C. Mode of production and relations of production

192. The system in which the capitalists own the means of production is

A. Socialism
B. Capitalism
C. Feudalism
D. Communism

Answer: B. Capitalism

193. ‘Goods are produced for sale rather than own use’ is a remarkable characteristic of

A. Feudal societies
B. Capitalist societies
C. Ancient societies
D. Primitive societies

Answer: B. Capitalist societies

194. The concept of alienation is developed by

A. Karl Marx
B. Max Weber
C. Herbert Spencer
D. Auguste Comte

Answer: A. Karl Marx

195. The division of class in a capitalist society is based on

A. The ownership of property
B. The changes in relations
C. The production of commodities
D. The surplus value

Answer: A. The ownership of property

196. The single most fundamental fact of the materialist theory of history is

A. Control over the history of production
B. The ownership over the means of production
C. Ownership over the relations of production
D. Distribution of the forces of production

Answer: B. The ownership over the means of production

197. In Marx’s view, the forces of production along with the relations of production define —

A. Mode of production
B. Means of production
C. Surplus value
D. Labour value

Answer: A. Mode of production

198. In an economic system, the ———— has the ability to determine the system of social relations arising from it

A. Mode of production
B. Forces of production
C. Means of production
D. Relations of production

Answer: A. Mode of production

199. The mode of production that encompasses a rudimentary system of production in which people live together principally by hunting and gathering was

A. Feudal mode of production
B. Ancient mode of production
C. Capitalism
D. Asiatic mode of production

Answer: D. Asiatic mode of production

200. Of the four types of mode of production identified by Karl Marx, which one had a communal ownership over the property with no system of class relations?

A. Feudal mode of production
B. Asiatic mode of production
C. Ancient mode of production
D. Capitalism

Answer: B. Asiatic mode of production

201. The term used by Durkheim to identify a system of social relations linking individuals to each other and to the society as a whole is

A. Acculturation
B. Association
C. Social solidarity
D. Social facts

Answer: C. Social solidarity

202. The type of social bonding that discourages individual autonomy in a society is termed as

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Homogenous solidarity
D. Heterogeneous solidarity

Answer: A. Mechanical solidarity

203. In a society where labour is specialized and individuals are linked more to each other than they are to society as a whole, it is characterised by

A. Mechanical solidarity
B. Organic solidarity
C. Homogenous solidarity
D. Heterogeneous solidarity

Answer: B. Organic solidarity

204. According to Durkheim, the primary characteristic of organic solidarity is the development of

A. Social facts
B. Suicide
C. Division of labour
D. Forced labour

Answer: C. Division of labour

205. Durkheim maintained that in order to study social facts, it should be considered as

A. Abstracts
B. Things
C. Facts
D. Pathological

Answer: B. Things

206. According to Durkheim, when an industrial crisis breaks down the social solidarity existing between specialized functions and creates a decline in social cohesion, it is called

A. The forced division of labour
B. Poor division of labour
C. Abnormal division of labour
D. Anomic division of labour

Answer: D. Anomic division of labour

207. ————— is the result of the weakening of the bonds which tie the individual to the society

A. Anomic suicide
B. Fatalistic suicide
C. Egoistic suicide
D. Altruistic suicide

Answer: C. Egoistic suicide

208. The doctrine that holds the view that historical circumstances are determined by a sequence of economic events connected to the act of production is known as

A. Historical materialism
B. Rationalization
C. Economic determinism
D. Economic materialism

Answer: C. Economic determinism

209. The building blocks of a theory is called

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: B. Concepts

210. Conclusions drawn about the relationship among concepts based on the logical interrelationship is called

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: C. Propositions

211. Specified expectations about empirical reality derived from propositions are called

A. Definitions
B. Propositions
C. Variables
D. Hypotheses

Answer: D. Hypotheses

212. A concept having two or more values or categories that can vary and be measured is known as

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: D. Variables

213. The theoretical perspective that holds that society is a complex system whose various parts work together to produce stability is

A. Structuralism
B. Functionalism
C. Conflict perspective
D. Interactionism

Answer: B. Functionalism

214. A prominent exponent of functionalism in the United States

A. Karl Marx
B. Durkheim
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Wilfredo Pareto

Answer: C. Talcott Parsons

215. The concept of ‘dysfunction’ is a major contribution of

A. Durkheim
B. Robert K Merton
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Wilfredo Pareto

Answer: B. Robert K Merton

216. The theoretical perspective that emphasises the importance of moral consensus in maintaining order and stability in a system is called

A. Structuralism
B. Functionalism
C. Conflict perspective
D. Interactionism

Answer: B. Functionalism

217. What are manifest functions?

A. Unrecognised and intended consequences of a social action
B. Recognised and unintended consequences of a social action
C. Unrecognised and Unintended consequences of a social action
D. Recognised and intended consequences of a social action

Answer: D. Recognised and intended consequences of a social action

218. Robert K Merton is a

A. Structuralist
B. Structural-Functionalist
C. Conflict theorist
D. Interactionist

Answer: B. Structural-Functionalist

219. Middle-range theories is a great contribution by

A. K Merton
B. Talcott Parson
C. Ralph Dahrendorf
D. Wright Mills

Answer: A. K Merton

220. The evolutionary perspective holds the idea that

A. The social system is in a state of equilibrium
B. Change in one part of a system affects other parts
C. Societies gradually change from simple to complex systems
D. The social system consists of interrelated parts.

Answer: C. Societies gradually change from simple to complex systems

221. Auguste Comte believed that human societies can evolve only in a

A. Stagnant state
B. Polylinear way
C. Multi-linear way
D. Uni-linear way

Answer: D. Uni-linear way

222. Latent functions are always

A. Unrecognised and intended consequences of a social action
B. Recognised and unintended consequences of a social action
C. Unrecognised and Unintended consequences of a social action
D. Recognised and intended consequences of a social action

Answer: C. Unrecognised and Unintended consequences of a social action

223. The study of everyday behaviour in situations of face to face interaction is usually called

A. Microsociology
B. Public sociology
C. Macrosociology
D. Political sociology

Answer: A. Microsociology

224. Theories that deal with the analysis of large-scale social structures and longterm processes of change is called

A. Micro level theories
B. Macro level theories
C. Middle-range theories
D. Symbolic interactionism

Answer: B. Macro level theories

225. Levi-Strauss is a prominent

A. Functionalist
B. Interactionist
C. Structural- functionalist
D. Structuralist

Answer: D. Structuralist

226. Who introduced the term sociological imagination?

A. Lewis Coser
B. C H Cooley
C. C Wright Mills
D. Max Weber

Answer: C. C Wright Mills

227. The Sociological paradigm that focuses on the way each part of society functions together to contribute to the whole is called

A. Structuralism
B. Structural-functionalism
C. Conflict theory
D. Symbolic interactionism

Answer: B. Structural-functionalism

228. Conflict theories operate at a ——– perspective

A. Micro-level
B. Macro-level
C. Individual level
D. Peripheral level

Answer: B. Macro-level

229. The sociological paradigm that focuses on the way inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuate differences in power is known as

A. Structuralism
B. Structural-functionalism
C. Conflict theory
D. Symbolic interactionism

Answer: C. Conflict theory

230. Symbolic interactionism is known to be a —————–

A. Micro-level theory
B. Macro-level theory
C. Meso-level theory
D. Middle-range theory

Answer: A. Micro-level theory

231. Symbolic interactionism focuses on ———-

A. Structure of the society
B. Function of the society
C. Conflicts over resources
D. One to one interactions and communications

Answer: D. One to one interactions and communications

232. Who believed that society is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent parts that work together to maintain stability?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: C. Emile Durkheim

233. Who is known as the founder of conflict theory?

A. Karl Marx
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: A. Karl Marx

234. Who is the founder of symbolic interactionism?

A. Herbert Blumer
B. Sigmund Freud
C. C H Cooley
D. George Herbert Mead

Answer: D. George Herbert Mead

235. What are the three stages argued by Comte that knowledge pass through?

A. Primitive – feudal – capitalistic
B. Theological – metaphysical –positive
C. Barbarian – Agricultural – Industrial
D. Tribal – Industrial – Capitalistic

Answer: B. Theological – metaphysical –positive

236. Who among the following said that ‘Sociology is the science of understanding the meaning of social action?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: D. Max Webber

237. Who among the following analysed the impact of religious beliefs on the economic growth for the first time?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Max Webber
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: C. Max Webber

238. Who advocated the social action approach in sociology for the first time?

A. Max Webber
B. Auguste Comte
C. Herbert Spencer
D. Emile Durkheim

Answer: A. Max Webber

239. Weber’s concept, the Verstehen stands for

A. Understanding of how the researchers interpret the social action
B. Understanding social action in an objective manner
C. Understanding how the social world is made of actors
D. Understanding social world from the point of view of the actors

Answer: D. Understanding social world from the point of view of the actors

240. The political tension and economic antagonism between two classes is called

A. Class competition
B. Class conflict
C. Class interests
D. Class upheaval

Answer: B. Class conflict

241. According to Marx, the conflict of interests between two antagonistic classes leads to

A. Class struggle
B. Class tension
C. Competition
D. War

Answer: A. Class struggle

242. The egalitarian society Marx believed to replace the capitalism is called

A. Feudal society
B. Agrarian society
C. Socialist society
D. Industrial society

Answer: C. Socialist society

243. Who advocated a social action approach in sociology?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: D. Max Webber

244. Urbanization was the result of ————— during 18thcentury

A. Scientific thought
B. French revolution
C. VIndustrial revolution
D. Globalization

Answer: C. VIndustrial revolution

245. Marx believed that the destruction of capitalism will lead to the formation of

A. Feudalism
B. Agrarian system
C. Socialism
D. Secularism

Answer: C. Socialism

246. According to Karl Marx, class conflict occurs with the emergence of

A. Competition
B. Cooperation
C. Compartmentalisation
D. Class consciousness

Answer: D. Class consciousness

247. Which of the following is not an aspect of alienation in capitalist societies?

A. Alienation from the product activity
B. Alienation from the products
C. Alienation from species
D. Alienation from wages

Answer: D. Alienation from wages

248. The rise of individualism was an important social thought emerged out of ——–

A. Industrial revolution
B. Agricultural revolution followed by industrial revolution
C. Industrial revolution and French revolution
D. Enlightenment and French revolution

Answer: D. Enlightenment and French revolution

249. The French revolution marked the development of a new class called

A. Proletariats
B. Labourer
C. Capitalists
D. Peasants

Answer: C. Capitalists

250. Who among the following held the view that society is a moral entity?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Herbert Spencer
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Webber

Answer: C. Emile Durkheim

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