300+ Top Principles of Social Research MCQs and Answers

Principles of Social Research Multiple Choice Questions

1. A concept having two or more values or categories that can vary and be measured is known as

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: D. Variables

2. The theoretical perspective that holds that society is a complex system whose various parts work together to produce stability is

A. Structuralism
B. Functionalism
C. Conflict perspective
D. Interactionism

Answer: B. Functionalism

3. The prominent meaning of ‘statistics’……………

A. Data, its analysis and interpretation
B. observation of samples
C. Method for analysingnumers
D. conducting census

Answer: A. Data, its analysis and interpretation

4. “Statistics are effected to a marked extend by …………………”

A. Aggregate of facts
B. multiplicity of causes
C. numerically stated
D. complex manifestations

Answer: B. multiplicity of causes

5. Quantitative characteristic includes……………………..

A. Love
B. emotion
C. intelligence
D. data

Answer: D. data

6. The building blocks of a theory is called

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: B. Concepts

7. Conclusions drawn about the relationship among concepts based on the logical interrelationship is called

A. Definitions
B. Concepts
C. Propositions
D. Variables

Answer: C. Propositions

8. Specified expectations about empirical reality derived from propositions are called

A. Definitions
B. Propositions
C. Variables
D. Hypotheses

Answer: D. Hypotheses

9. The very word statistics refers to …………………….

A. State craft
B. Science of State
C. Political state
D. Political craft

Answer: C. Political state

10. As a plural noun, who defined statistics very adequately and realistically

A. Webster
B. Bowley
C. A.M. Tuttle
D. Secrist

Answer: C. A.M. Tuttle

11. Statistics is one of those sciences which are only indicative of a trend,therefore………….

A. It is probabilistic than deterministic
B. It is deterministic than probabilistic
C. a definite date collection method is unnecessary
D. data sources should be clear

Answer: A. It is probabilistic than deterministic

12. The definition of various terms, units of collection and measurement help ensuring that ….

A. Analysis is easy
B. method is systematic and empirical
C. Construction of conclusion is easy
D. data is relevant to the purpose

Answer: D. data is relevant to the purpose

13. Who stated statistics as “aggregate of knowledge brought together for practical ends?

A. W.I. King
B. A.L. Bowley
C. Prof. H. Secrist
D. None of the above

Answer: D. None of the above

14. Data is collected with reasonable standard of …………..

A. Numerical method
B. Feasibility
C. Accuracy
D. All the above

Answer: C. Accuracy

15. Statistics should be capable of ……………………………

A. Empiricism
B. Systematic inquiry
C. Comparison
D. Evaluation

Answer: C. Comparison

16. What characteristic does statistics emphasises, as a Method or as a singular noun?

A. Descriptive
B. Analytical
C. Inferential
D. comparative

Answer: A. Descriptive

17. Which characteristic of the following is not belonging to, ‘statistics as a method’?

A. A tool of analysis
B. helps processing the raw
C. Descriptive nature
D. processing done by systematic analysis & interpretation.

Answer: C. Descriptive nature

18. Which of the following index numbers is an important statistical concept in economic theory?

A. Per capita income
B. Cost of living
C. Gross National Product
D. Maximum Retail Price

Answer: B. Cost of living

19. The Govt. Administration is done through …………. which are formulated on statistical basis

A. Effective planning
B. Budgets
C. Policies
D. None of the above

Answer: B. Budgets

20. National sample survey scheme is an example for ……………..

A. Government policy
B. planning
C. Population Analysis
D. Business

Answer: B. planning

21. According to Lincoln.L.Chao, what is the primary objective of modern statistics?

A. Presentation of data
B. Collection of quantitative data
C. Assisting in making decisions
D. Summarization of data

Answer: C. Assisting in making decisions

22. ………………. guides from the planning stage to the stage of drawing of final conclusions

A. Numerical facts
B. Statistical methods
C. Data
D. None of the above

Answer: B. Statistical methods

23. What are the two broad functions of statistical methods in Social Research?

A. Description and Summarizing
B. Description and Indication
C. Description and Induction
D. Applied Mathematics and Induction

Answer: C. Description and Induction

24. What does Social Researchers seek out of vast and confusing variety of individual characters?

A. Generalizations
B. Decisions
C. Single events
D. Group characteristics

Answer: D. Group characteristics

25. What is the reason for the necessity of statistics in the field of social sciences?

A. Simplification and quantitative approach
B. Knowledge acquisition and description
C. Easiness and analytical
D. All the above

Answer: A. Simplification and quantitative approach

26. (i) Statistical laws are not exact (ii) Statistics reveals the entire story Choose the correct from the following:

A. Both the statements are correct
B. Only the first statement is correct
C. Only the second statement is correct
D. Both the statements are wrong

Answer: B. Only the first statement is correct

27. Which among the following is not a merit of the census method?

A. Results are representative
B. Information on rare events
C. Results are reliable
D. In appropriate method for enumeration

Answer: D. In appropriate method for enumeration

28. What is the reason for dropping the enumeration process?

A. cost is prohibitive
B. time consuming
C. large efforts
D. All the above

Answer: D. All the above

29. Which among the following is a material for statistics?

A. Honesty
B. Poverty
C. Wisdom
D. Numerical data

Answer: D. Numerical data

30. What embodies sampling?

A. Haphazard selection
B. Numbers
C. Definite rules
D. Accuracy

Answer: C. Definite rules

31. The basic objective of sampling study is ……………………

A. to draw inference
B. to check units of population
C. to collect numerical data
D. to make census

Answer: C. to collect numerical data

32. The Mathematical theory of probability has helped to form the …………..

A. Statistical theory
B. Law of Inertia of large numbers
C. Law of statistical Relativity
D. Law of statistical Regularity

Answer: A. Statistical theory

33. When someone studies about the average height of the students of a particular university, which way will be selected from the following, for more accurate results?

A. Take the measurement of all the students in the University
B. Select some students randomly from some colleges
C. Select randomly from every colleges
D. Select all the students from some colleges

Answer: C. Select randomly from every colleges

34. (i) the results derived from sampling method may be different from population
(ii) Sampling method derives only the same characteristics of the population
Choose the correct from the following:

A. Both the statements are correct
B. Both the statements are wrong
C. Only the first statement is correct
D. only the second statement is correct

Answer: C. Only the first statement is correct

35. The Law of Inertia of Large Numbers means……………………..

A. Opposite of the law of statistical Regularity
B. Same to the Law of statistical Regularity
C. Sample in Large Numbers create big variations in results
D. Opposite to the mathematical theory of probability

Answer: B. Same to the Law of statistical Regularity

36. To study the variation in the production of rice over a number of years, select from the following, the appropriate sample for drawing results that reflects only small variations?

A. Collect data from some states
B. Collect data from all the states
C. Collect data from one or two states
D. Collect data from more than half the number of states

Answer: B. Collect data from all the states

37. Which among the following is not an essential of sampling?

A. Representativeness
B. Complete
C. Same
D. Dependent

Answer: D. Dependent

38. “More reliable results can be obtained through sampling method”, because …………..

A. Statistical error is low
B. Saves time
C. Cost is low
D. None of the above

Answer: A. Statistical error is low

39. (i) Judging a person is an example for random sampling method
(ii) Blood taken for testing is an example for sampling method
Choose the correct from the following:

A. Both the statements are correct
B. Both the statements are wrong
C. Only the first statement is correct
D. Only the second statement is correct

Answer: A. Both the statements are correct

40. “Equal chances of being included in the sample”, about what does Dr. Yates and Harper defined like this?

A. Stratified sampling
B. Probability sampling
C. Proportional Sampling
D. None of these

Answer: B. Probability sampling

41. Non-proportional random sampling is a sub-type of………………..

A. Unrestricted random sampling
B. Simple Random Sampling
C. Stratified Random Sampling
D. Cluster Random Sampling

Answer: C. Stratified Random Sampling

42. When the population is badly affected, which type of sampling is appropriate?

A. Systematic sampling
B. stratified sampling
C. Cluster sampling
D. None of the above

Answer: B. stratified sampling

43. ………… sampling introduced its ability to change in accordance with the changing situations.

A. Multistage
B. Judgment
C. Deliberate
D. Systematic

Answer: A. Multistage

44. Quota sampling is the combination of …………. and…………… Sampling

A. Purposive and Deliberate
B. Purposive and systematic
C. Stratified and systematic
D. Purposive and stratified

Answer: D. Purposive and stratified

45. How did king relate the statistical Regularity and Random sampling?

A. Sampling is not related to calculation
B. Sample chosen possess some features of the whole
C. Chosen sample can follow the statistical methods
D. None of the above

Answer: B. Sample chosen possess some features of the whole

46. What is the characteristic of the sample which is selected randomly?

A. It is not average of the whole
B. It would be representative
C. It would not be equal to the population
D. All the above

Answer: B. It would be representative

47. ‘A text Book of Statistics’ is written by ……………………….

A. S.P. Gupta
B. P.L. Bhandarkar, T.S Wilkinson
C. Pauline V. Young
D. L.R. Potti

Answer: D. L.R. Potti

48. ……… is the short summary of the technical report which is prepared by a Doctoral student.

A. Research article
B. Research report
C. Interim report
D. Research report

Answer: D. Research report

49. ………………… is a narrative and authoritative document on the outcome of research effort.

A. Research proposal
B. Summary report
C. Synopsis
D. Research report

Answer: A. Research proposal

50. It provides systematic knowledge on problem and issues analysed.

A. Research report
B. Research abstract
C. Research proposal
D. Research design

Answer: A. Research report

51. The ……… of a set of observations or scores is obtained by dividing the Sum of all the values by the total number of values

A. mean
B. median
C. mode
D. dispersion

Answer: A. mean

52. ……………….. is a measure of position rather than of magnitude.

A. mode
B. Median
C. Mean
D. Range

Answer: B. Median

53. The most frequently occurring score in a distribution.

A. Mean
B. Mode
C. median
D. Quartile

Answer: B. Mode

54. ……………… provide a shorthand summary of data.

A. frequency table
B. Simple table
C. cross table
D. two way table.

Answer: A. frequency table

55. ……………. are the most effective pictorial device for comparing data.

A. bar charts
B. graphs
C. pictograms
D. diagramme

Answer: C. pictograms

56. …… is a line chart plotted on arithmetic graph paper from a cumulative frequency distribution that may be cumulated downward or upward.

A. Lorenz curve
B. bar charts
C. ogive
D. pictograms

Answer: C. ogive

57. Snowball sampling is used for data collection through……………

A. Connecting relations
B. Small population
C. Representatives
D. None of the above

Answer: A. Connecting relations

58. Choose the advantage of snowball sampling from the following

A. Population is not seen
B. Total size of population is not known
C. Researcher’s acquaintance influence the research
D. Contradicts with conventional nations

Answer: A. Population is not seen

59. The values are represented by identical symbol or pictures.

A. Bar charts
B. Pictograms
C. Circle charts
D. Graphs

Answer: B. Pictograms

60. A single value that represent the average characteristic of its frequency distribution

A. Quartiles
B. Grouped data
C. Central tendency
D. Range

Answer: C. Central tendency

61. The extent of variability is measured by …………………

A. Central tendency
B. Measures of dispersion
C. arithmetic mean
D. co–relation

Answer: B. Measures of dispersion

62. ………… measures the difference between the highest and lowest scores of a distribution

A. Range
B. Dispersion
C. Co-relation
D. Regression

Answer: A. Range

63. Academic community is otherwise called

A. General public
B. Target audience
C. Participant audience
D. Scientific community

Answer: D. Scientific community

64. …….. is a process of checking to detect and correct errors and omissions

A. Processing
B. Analysis
C. Editing
D. Coding

Answer: C. Editing

65. ……………… is a trial test of a specific aspect of the study

A. Plan of the study
B. Design of the study
C. Pie test
D. Hypothesis

Answer: B. Design of the study

66. ………. an abstract symbol representing an object or a certain phenomenon

A. Definition
B. Concepts
C. Objectivity
D. Hypothesis

Answer: B. Concepts

67. …………………. is the response to code its response

A. Tabulation
B. Coding
C. Classification
D. Analysis

Answer: C. Classification

68. ……………… is a succinct statement of the findings of the project

A. Proposal
B. Abstract
C. Project
D. Report

Answer: B. Abstract

69. ……… provides a summary of the current state of knowledge in the area of investigation

A. Introduction
B. Analysis
C. Conceptual framework
D. Review of literature

Answer: D. Review of literature

70. ………………….. is the first page of research report

A. Introduction
B. Title page
C. Acknowledgement
D. Declaration

Answer: B. Title page

71. The recording of the data is done on the basis of the scheme

A. coding
B. tabulation
C. classification
D. analysis

Answer: A. coding

72. It is a process of checking to detect and correct errors and omissions

A. coding
B. editing
C. analysis
D. classification

Answer: B. editing

73. ……………………….. is a declarative statement combining concepts.

A. Theory
B. Reviews
C. Hypothesis
D. Variables

Answer: C. Hypothesis

74. …………… helps making estimations or generalizations from the results of sample surveys.

A. statistical analysis
B. hypothesis
C. classifications
D. tabulation

Answer: A. statistical analysis

75. Any variable that is responsive for bringing about a change is called an ………….. variable

A. dependent
B. independent
C. control
D. Interdependent

Answer: B. independent

76. An image, perception or concept that is capable of measurement is called a ………….

A. attribute
B. theory
C. paradigm
D. variable

Answer: D. variable

77. …………… is a purposeful systematic and selective way of watching and listening to an interaction

A. observation
B. interview
C. focus group
D. participant observation

Answer: A. observation

78. Preface include in the …………… section

A. reference
B. preliminary
C. body of the report
D. content section

Answer: B. preliminary

79. ……………… is the first of the terminal items presented at the end of the research report.

A. author index
B. footnotes
C. appendices
D. bibliography

Answer: D. bibliography

80. Copies of data collection instruments are included in …………….

A. references
B. appendices
C. bibiliography
D. footnotes

Answer: B. appendices

81. …………. are numbered consecutively within each chapter or throughout the entire report.

A. references
B. bibiliography
C. footnotes
D. Appendices

Answer: C. footnotes

82. ………………. are statements of factual information based upon the data analysis.

A. findings
B. review
C. methodology
D. hypothesis

Answer: A. findings

83. ……………… is a measure that occurs most frequently in a distribution.

A. mean
B. average
C. mode
D. median

Answer: C. mode

84. ………………. is a positional average.

A. standard deviation
B. range
C. correlation
D. median

Answer: D. median

85. ………… presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are non-technical people or general public

A. graphic
B. table
C. qualitative
D. quantitative

Answer: A. graphic

86. …………. bar charts are commonly used for presenting time series data.

A. vertical
B. horizontal
C. component
D. circle

Answer: A. vertical

87. ….… is an indepth comprehensive study of a person, unit, institution etc.

A. content analysis
B. observation method
C. case-study
D. focus group study

Answer: C. case-study

88. ………… of research problem is the first and most important step in the research process.

A. formulating
B. designing
C. selecting
D. reporting

Answer: A. formulating

89. ……………… is a way to systematically solve the research problem.

A. research design
B. research methodology
C. research planning
D. research ion

Answer: B. research methodology

90. …………… research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society.

A. applied
B. descriptive
C. qualitative
D. empirical

Answer: A. applied

91. ………………….. is also known as arithmetic average

A. dispersion
B. range
C. quartile
D. mean

Answer: D. mean

92. ………… provides the complete outline of the research report along with all details.

A. preliminary
B. body of the report
C. main text
D. methodology

Answer: C. main text

93. Research simply means a search for………….

A. Problems,
B. facts,
C. results,
D. topics

Answer: B. facts,

94. …………………….. is an organized inquiry

A. scientific method
B. experimental study
C. research
D. social science research

Answer: C. research

95. ………… is a plan, structure and strategy of investigations so conceived as to obtain answers to research problem

A. research plan
B. research proposal
C. research design
D. research methodology

Answer: C. research design

96. Research may be made through either arbitory method or………….. method

A. rational,
B. scientific
C. vague
D. imagination,

Answer: B. scientific

97. Who defined research is an systematic , controlled, empirical and critical investigation?

A. Spencer,
B. Weber,
C. Kerlinger,
D. Morry

Answer: C. Kerlinger,

98. ……….develop theories?

A. observarion,
B. casestudy,
C. research,
D. survey

Answer: C. research,

99. Arbitory method is based on………….

A. investigation,
B. imagination,
C. research,
D. scientific

Answer: B. imagination,

100. Who defined research is an organized enquiry?

A. kerlinger,
B. emory,
C. morry,
D. redman

Answer: B. emory,

101. Who defined research is a systematic development of logically related prepositions?

A. Black&champion,
B. Comte,
C. Weber,
D. Morry

Answer: A. Black&champion,

102. Research adopt………..method.

A. scientific,
B. political,
C. individual,
D. public

Answer: A. scientific,

103. Research is based on empirical evidences and……………………experience.

A. scientific ,
B. political,
C. rational,
D. observable

Answer: D. observable

104. …………….is a systematic step by step procedure.

A. observation,
B. calculation,
C. scientificmethod,
D. specultion

Answer: C. scientificmethod,

105. Who says research is a systematic effort to gain knowledge?

A. Black&champion,
B. Emory,
C. Kerlinger,
D. Redman

Answer: D. Redman

106. Two elements of scientific method; procedural components and ………….

A. rational components,
B. personal components,
C. individual components,
D. group components

Answer: B. personal components,

107. There is no shortcut to truth, who says?

A. Morry,
B. Spencer,
C. Karlpearson,
D. Marx

Answer: C. Karlpearson,

108. .………………..is the tentative conclusion.

A. observation,
B. verification,
C. hypothesis,
D. data collection

Answer: C. hypothesis,

109. …………..is the hallmark of scientific method.

A. concepts,
B. objectivity,
C. ethical neutrality
D. subjectivity

Answer: B. objectivity,

110. Logical reasoning process consist of induction and…………….

A. generalisation,
B. deduction,
C. verifiability
D. induction

Answer: B. deduction,

111. Who says theory as a integrated body of defnitions,assumptions……?

A. arnold rose,
B. p.v.young,
C. kerlinger
D. Emory

Answer: A. arnold rose,

112. …………………..as a set of systematically interrelated concepts, definition, prepositions.

A. Fact,
B. Research,
C. Theory
D. Hypothesis

Answer: C. Theory

113. Empirical research may given a new focus to the existing theory means

A. research clarifies theory,
B. research initiate theory,
C. research refocuses theory,
D. research motivates theory

Answer: C. research refocuses theory,

114. ……………define social research as the systematic method of discovering new facts and verifying old facts.

A. p.v.young,
B. emory,
C. black&champion
D. Karl Pearsons

Answer: A. p.v.young,

115. …………….are empirically verifiable observation.

A. research,
B. fact,
C. theory
D. data

Answer: B. fact,

116. …………………means basing coclusions on facts without any bias and value judgment.

A. subjectivity
B. objectivity
C. verifiability
D. reliability

Answer: B. objectivity

117. Relation with other aspect of research creates………………….

A. value related problem,
B. ethical problem,
C. personal prejudice and bias
D. financial problem

Answer: B. ethical problem,

118. ……………. is a systematic method of exploring,analyzing and conceptualizing human life in order to extend,correctoror verify knowledge of human behavior and social life.

A. scientific research,
B. qualitative research,
C. social science research
D. Action reserch

Answer: C. social science research

119. The purpose of research is to discover answer to questions through application of………..

A. scientific method,
B. scientific research,
C. scientific procedure
D. Action research

Answer: C. scientific procedure

120. ….…research is focused to collect knowledge without any intention to apply it

A. pure research,
B. exploratory research,
C. applied research
D. action research

Answer: A. pure research,

121. Pure research is also known as ………………….

A. fundamental research,
B. action research,
C. practical research
D. applied research

Answer: A. fundamental research,

122. ………………….research is problem oriented and action directed

A. analytical research,
B. action research,
C. applied research
D. pure research

Answer: C. applied research

123. Plan for research is labeled as ……………

A. casestudy,
B. research design,
C. intensive study
D. synopsis

Answer: B. research design,

124. An intensive study of particular case is ……………

A. content analysis,
B. casestudy,
C. research design
D. focused interview

Answer: B. casestudy,

125. ………has defined case study is investigating the contemporary phenomena of real life.

A. Omerry,
B. Yin,
C. Burus,
D. Sarantkose

Answer: A. Omerry,

126. ……………may be a source of hypothesis of future research.

A. Case study,
B. Research design,
C. Content analysis
D. Research proposal

Answer: B. Research design,

127. Absence of representatives are special feature of…………………….

A. research
B. content analysis
C. narrative method
D. casestudy

Answer: C. narrative method

128. Object of case study is to …………..

A. gueralise theory,
B. detive theory,
C. to expand theory
D. to test hypothesis

Answer: C. to expand theory

129. who said that research studies have differing degree of purity and applicability?

A. Faraday,
B. Julysimon,
C. Bogardus,
D. Morry]

Answer: D. Morry]

130. Classsical design is a type of ……………..research

A. Basic research,
B. applied research,
C. action research,
D. exploratory research

Answer: B. applied research,

131. According to …………….content analysis is a qualitative technique.

A. bogardus,
B. sarantkos,
C. yiu,
D. ernaan

Answer: D. ernaan

132. Objectivity,generality,systematic and quality are the charecterestics of……

A. casestudy,
B. projective technique
C. narrative method
D. content analysis

Answer: B. projective technique

133. Which of the following research purposes are associated with qualitative research?

A. Description
B. Prediction
C. Theory building
D. Theory testing

Answer: A. Description

134. The word narrative derived from ………..verb ”narrare”

A. latin,
B. greek,
C. Italian,
D. Persian

Answer: B. greek,

135. ……..method help us to get the feedback about what people do over a long period of time.

A. Questionnaire,
B. survey method,
C. case study,
D. group interview

Answer: B. survey method,

136. …………research is a systematic gathering of information among individuals and collectives.

A. casestudy,
B. survey,
C. content analysis,
D. focus interview

Answer: B. survey,

137. _________ is defined as a tentative or working proposition suggested as a solution to a problem.

A. Research
B. Hypothesis
C. Objective
D. Concepts

Answer: A. Research

138. It essentially states that there is no relation between the variables of the problem.

A. Hypothesis
B. Crude hypothesis
C. Refines hypothesis
D. Working

Answer: D. Working

139. __________ indicates a plan of action to be carried out in connection with a proposed research work.

A. Research proposal
B. Research abstract
C. Research methodology
D. Research design

Answer: C. Research methodology

140. __________ study which wants to determine the frequency of occurrence of an event of its association with something.

A. Descriptive
B. Formulate
C. Explorative
D. Diagnostic

Answer: B. Formulate

141. This is an intensive and searching interview aiming at studying the respondent’s opinion, emotions or convictions on the habits of an interview guide.

A. Clinical interview
B. Depth interview
C. Focused interview
D. Directive interview

Answer: A. Clinical interview

142. _________ as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with a common interest interact with each other.

A. Group interview
B. Depth interview
C. Direct interview
D. Focused interview

Answer: C. Direct interview

143. Narrative enquiry is distinctive in the field of ……….

A. quantitative,
B. qualitative,
C. descriptive,
D. experiemental]

Answer: B. qualitative,

144. A story is a starting point of……………method

A. experiemental,
B. quantitative,
C. scientific,
D. narrative

Answer: D. narrative

145. __________ involve presentation of ambiguous stimuli to the respondents for interpretation.

A. Psychological test
B. Socio metric test
C. Projective techniques
D. Case study

Answer: C. Projective techniques

146. ___________ leaves as a suggestive reference or prompter during interview.

A. Interview guide
B. Diary
C. Field note
D. Interview schedule

Answer: C. Field note

147. A __________question can be answered in one of the two responses

A. Open type
B. Closed type
C. Dichotomous
D. Multiple choices

Answer: A. Open type

148. __________ are those which are collected fresh and are original in character

A. Primary data
B. Secondary data
C. Qualitative data
D. Quantitative data

Answer: A. Primary data

149. _________ observation, the observer have been old specifically what is to be observed

A. Structured
B. Controlled
C. ed
D. Participated

Answer: C. ed

150. It enable the researcher to relate logically known facts to intelligent guesses about unknown conditions.

A. Research design
B. Pre-test
C. Hypothesis
D. Pilot study

Answer: B. Pre-test

151. It enables the researcher to acquaint himself with current knowledge in the field in which he is going to conduct his research.

A. Social survey
B. Review of literature
C. Research proposal
D. Research design

Answer: B. Review of literature

152. The _________ type of questionnaire calls for a free response in the respondent’s own words.

A. Closed
B. Open
C. Structured
D. Unstructured

Answer: A. Closed

153. _________ refers to a scale with a set of points which describes varying degrees of the dimensions of an attribute observed.

A. Rating scale
B. Check list
C. Score card
D. Observation

Answer: B. Check list

154. A ________ refers to any collection of specified group of human beings

A. Sampling
B. Population
C. Random sampling
D. Non probability sampling

Answer: C. Random sampling

155. _________ data are verbal or other symbolic materials

A. Quantitative
B. Primary
C. Qualitative
D. Secondary

Answer: A. Quantitative

156. _________ is directed towards the solution of a problem.

A. Research
B. Data collection
C. Hypothesis
D. Survey

Answer: C. Hypothesis

157. _________ research is directed towards the solution of immediate, specific and practical problem.

A. Basic
B. Diagnostic
C. Applied
D. Descriptive

Answer: C. Applied

158. A proposition which can be put to test to determine validity.

A. Hypothesis
B. Operational definition
C. Data collection tool
D. Research design

Answer: B. Operational definition

159. Information collected by the researcher for the purposes of the project immediately.

A. Secondary data
B. Primary data
C. Qualitative data
D. Quantitative data

Answer: B. Primary data

160. It is the collection of data concerning the living and working conditionals of the people in a given community

A. Sampling
B. Social survey
C. Case study
D. Data collection

Answer: B. Social survey

161. Control is the essential ingredient of _________ method.

A. Descriptive
B. Diagnostic
C. Experimental
D. Explorative

Answer: B. Diagnostic

162. A set of systematically related propositions specifying causal relationships among variables.

A. Research
B. Theory
C. Concept
D. Hypothesis

Answer: B. Theory

163. __________ means basing conclusions on facts without any bias and value judgment.

A. Subjectivity
B. Objectivity
C. Research
D. Theory

Answer: B. Objectivity

164. Rorschach test comes under __________ projective techniques.

A. Verbal
B. Visual
C. Expressive
D. Audio

Answer: B. Visual

165. The search for answers to research questions is called collection of _________.

A. Facts
B. Data
C. Evidences
D. Reasons

Answer: B. Data

166. _________ method can be applied only where a high degree of precision is not necessary.

A. Case study
B. Local correspondents
C. Simple random questionnaire
D. Mailed

Answer: A. Case study

167. A meeting of persons face to face especially for the purpose of formal conference on some point.

A. Interview
B. Observation
C. Participant observation
D. Projective techniques/ survey

Answer: C. Participant observation

168. Information that is represented usually as words, not numbers.

A. Qualitative data
B. Primary data
C. Quantitative data
D. Scientific data

Answer: B. Primary data

169. __________ research focuses primarily on the meaning of subjective attributes of individuals or groups.

A. Quantitative
B. Qualitative
C. Social science
D. Descriptive

Answer: A. Quantitative

170. _________ are the most complete type of survey.

A. Social survey
B. Sampling
C. Censuses
D. Data collection

Answer: A. Social survey

171. It takes place with persons known to have been involved in particular concrete situations.

A. Personal interview
B. Focused interview
C. Depth interview
D. Repeated interview

Answer: A. Personal interview

172. It is a verbal method of securing data in the field surveys.

A. Interview
B. Participant observation
C. Questionnaire method
D. Projective technique.

Answer: C. Questionnaire method

173. ________ implies a smaller representation of a larger whole.

A. Survey
B. Population
C. Sample
D. Census

Answer: B. Population

174. ________ as the conceptual structure with in which the research is conducted.

A. Research proposal
B. Research design
C. Hypothesis
D. Pilot study

Answer: A. Research proposal

175. A concept which can take on different quantitative values is called a _________.

A. Variables
B. Values
C. Control groups
D. Paradigm

Answer: B. Values

176. _________ method in the application of valid and reliable research methods.

A. Experimental
B. Scientific
C. Survey
D. Case-study

Answer: A. Experimental

177. ________ is a organized enquiry

A. Research
B. Investigation
C. Survey
D. Experiment .

Answer: B. Investigation

178. ……………….is the one important role in research.

A. deduction
B. induction
C. prediction
D. conclusion

Answer: C. prediction

179. Research always starts from

A. Answer
B. Question or problem
C. Society or environment
D. Probable solutions

Answer: B. Question or problem

180. Social research means

A. Systematized effort to gain new knowledge.
B. Systematic method of discovering the new fact.
C. Collection of Primary and secondary data
D. All of these

Answer: D. All of these

181. Postulates means

A. pre-suppositions
B. post-suppositions
C. qualities
D. None of these

Answer: A. pre-suppositions

182. Which of the following is problem of social research?

A. Finding social investigators.
B. Collecting information.
C. Analysing data.
D. All of these

Answer: B. Collecting information.

183. Which of the following is quality of a good researcher?

A. Scientific mind and scientist
B. Philosopher
C. Doctor
D. Research aptitude

Answer: D. Research aptitude

184. Which of the following aspects can be part of survey?

A. Illiteracy
B. Unemployment
C. Poverty
D. All of these

Answer: D. All of these

185. Social research is

A. systematic observation
B. unsystematic observation
C. science
D. None of these

Answer: A. systematic observation

186. A research project normally has a

A. fixed duration
B. unlimited duration
C. Supervisor
D. None of these

Answer: A. fixed duration

187. Qualitative data means

A. expressed in numbers
B. expressed in words
C. both of these
D. None of these

Answer: A. expressed in numbers

188. “The process of selecting the sample from the population” is called

A. scale
B. standard error
C. statistics
D. sampling

Answer: D. sampling

189. A selection from a large population which is statistically found to be representative of that population is called

A. sample
B. item
C. Model
D. Survey

Answer: A. sample

190. A measurable trait of characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions is called

A. variable
B. Variable measurement
C. Value

Answer: A. variable

191. Which of the following is not an example of the functions of statistics?

A. Average
B. Intelligence quotient (IQ)
C. Diagram
D. x2 test

Answer: B. Intelligence quotient (IQ)

192. What does statistics of distribution indicates?

A. Consumer preference
B. Strength of the desire of people
C. Wealth of nation
D. Economic conditions of people

Answer: D. Economic conditions of people

193. The list of all units in a population is called

A. Random sampling
B. Sampling Frame
C. Bias
D. Parameter

Answer: B. Sampling Frame

194. Non Probability form of sampling is

A. Random Sampling
B. Non Random Sampling
C. Probability Sampling
D. Quota Sampling

Answer: D. Quota Sampling

195. Any numerical value calculated from sample data is called

A. Error
B. Statistic
C. Bias
D. Mean

Answer: B. Statistic

196. In which of the following nonrandom sampling techniques does the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants?

A. Snowball
B. Convenience
C. Purposive
D. Quota

Answer: A. Snowball

197. Which of the following is a form of nonrandom sampling?

A. Snowball sampling
B. Convenience sampling
C. Quota sampling
D. All the above

Answer: D. All the above

198. Which of the following techniques yields a simple random sample?

A. Choosing volunteers from an introductory psychology class to participate
B. Listing the individuals by ethnic group and choosing a proportion from within each ethnic group at random.
C. Numbering all the elements of a sampling frame and then using a random number table to pick cases from the table.
D. Randomly selecting schools, and then sampling everyone within the school

Answer: C. Numbering all the elements of a sampling frame and then using a random number table to pick cases from the table.

Principles of Social Research objective questions with answers pdf download online exam test

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