SAP ABAP Interview Questions and Answers
Basics of ABAP
1. What is ABAP?
ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is the programming language used for developing applications in SAP. It is a fourth-generation programming language used for customization and enhancement in the SAP system.
2. What are the different types of data types in ABAP?
The common data types in ABAP are:
Text: For alphanumeric characters String: For text fields Character: For single characters Integer: For whole numbers Float/Packed/Decimal: For fractions and decimal numbers Date: For date fields Time: For time fields
3. What are internal tables in ABAP?
Internal tables are temporary run time data storage structures that exists only during the execution of program in ABAP. It stores complete dataset records or parts of records from database tables or files.
4. What is a structured ABAP program?
A structured ABAP program contains modular units called include programs, subroutines, function modules, classes and function groups. This enables code reusability and easier maintenance of programs.
5. What is a domain in ABAP dictionary?
A domain defines the technical attributes or data element like data type, length, decimal places for fields used in ABAP programs to process business application data.
6. What is a data element in ABAP dictionary?
Data elements contain descriptions or meta data for data fields used in application tables. It describes technical attributes of table fields.
7. What is a transparent table in ABAP?
Transparent tables in ABAP dictionary contains application related data. We define transparent tables based on the requirements with appropriate field names and data types.
8. What is a structure in ABAP dictionary?
Structures in ABAP dictionary allows grouping of multiple related fields under one name. Instead of defining each field separately, we can define a structure with multiple components fields.
9. What is a view in ABAP?
Views are logical definitions of one or more transparent database tables presented in a structural way to the user. Views don’t contain any real data and are used to simplify complex database table structures for reporting purposes.
10. What is SE11 in SAP?
SE11 is a tool used to create, change and display ABAP dictionary objects like tables, views, structures, domains etc. It allows you to test and repair dictionary objects.
11. What is a package in ABAP?
Packages in ABAP provides namespaces to group development objects like programs, classes and dictionary objects. It supports object development and helps avoid naming conflicts between objects.
12. What is SE16 in SAP?
SE16 is a data browser tool that allows you to view, analyze and edit contents of transparent database tables defined in the ABAP dictionary. We can run queries and edit table contents.
13. What is SE38 in SAP?
SE38 is the ABAP editor tool used to create and maintain ABAP programs. We can write code, check syntax, test programs and analyze programs using various utilities.
14. What is the use of trademarks in SAP?
Trademarks are used to place warning messages on development objects like data dictionary objects and ABAP programs. It is used for documenting legal and software ownership rights.
15. What are selections screens in ABAP?
Selection screens are pre formatted screens where user input parameters required for ABAP report programs are entered. We can define parameters, defaults values, input fields etc in selection screens.
16. What are events in ABAP?
Events allow you to control when an ABAP program should be executed. Common events used in programming are INITIALIZATION, START-OF-SELECTION, END-OF-SELECTION, AT SELECTION-SCREEN, AT LINE-SELECTION etc.
17. What are exceptions in ABAP programming?
Exceptions are pre-defined messages used in programming when an abnormal situation arises. Instead of just stopping with dumps, we can handle expected error situations using exceptions.
18. What is a classical report in ABAP?
Classical reports are basic list style ABAP report programs. It generates formatted, readable reports with data from database tables using nested loops processing multi-level break statements.
19. What is Logical Database in ABAP?
Logical Database offers a central point for the definition of tables, structures, helps build reports from multiple tables using data retrieval concepts like Views, Screen sequences and batch input ses without needing coding.
20. What are dialog programs in ABAP?
Dialog programs allow user interaction with a graphical user interface. We can develop transaction codes, screens, menus, reports etc using Dialog programming.
21. What are ALV Grids in ABAP?
ALV (ABAP List Viewer) is a flexible tool used to display lists and reports. By using variants, layouts, filters etc ALV Grids provide options to format output reports dynamically based on user choices.
22. What are Dynpros in ABAP?
Dynpros (Dynamic Program) allows formatting the fields and layout of screens displayed to SAP users. It contains multiple screens linked under one transaction code.
23. What are Smartforms in SAP?
Smart forms allows creating and maintaining forms for mass printing within SAP systems. It allows graphical design of documents using multiple windows and borders.
24. What is Adobe Forms in ABAP?
Adobe forms help create and customize professional forms and documents like invoices, purchase orders etc with PDF output. It integrates Adobe LiveCycle tools with SAP.
25. What are subroutines in ABAP?
Subroutines allows embedding external procedures within a main program. It avoids rewriting the same code multiple times by using PERFORM statements to execute subroutines.
26. What are function modules in ABAP?
Function modules are stored procedures that perform common tasks called with imported and exported arguments. It provides modularity by encapsulating business logic into reusable units.
27. What are BAPIs in ABAP?
BAPIs (Business Application programming interfaces) are standard set of methods used for integration between SAP systems. BAPIs enable external applications to access business processes and data stored in SAP.
28. What is an ALV Tree in ABAP?
ALV Tree allows displaying hierarchical data in a tree structure. Parent-Child relationships between data records can be represented properly using ALV tree controls.
Object Oriented ABAP
29. What is a class in ABAP OOPS?
Classes allows definition of templates/blueprints in the form of methods and attributes encapsulating data and logic using object-oriented concepts like inheritance, polymorphism etc.
30. What is an interface in ABAP OOPS?
Interfaces are public section of classes containing only method signatures and constants without data. It specifies services offered by implementation classes and ensures standardization.
31. What is an attribute in ABAP OOPS?
Attributes are global data elements declared in the public and protected scope tied to the definition of a class. It ensures data encapsulation and provides get/set methods access.
32. What is a method in ABAP OOPS?
Methods contains business logic or algorithms coded as subroutines that operate on attributes. It ensures behavior encapsulation through visibility sections – public, private, protected etc.
33. What is inheritance in ABAP OOPS?
Inheritance allows a new child class to acquire data and methods from an existing parent class. It enables hierarchy and conceptual organization for easier maintenance.
34. What is BSP in ABAP?
BSP (Business Server Pages) allows developing dynamic web pages for the Internet, Intranet using ABAP and HTML. It bridges web programming with SAP ABAP.
35. What are BADIs in SAP?
BADI (Business Add-Ins) provides hooks or extension mechanisms for custom enhancements without modifying base SAP code. It allows flexible additions even during upgrades in standard SAP software.
36. What is an IDoc in SAP?
IDoc (Intermediate Document) allows document based data exchange between SAP systems or between SAP and external systems. It integrates business processes across systems.
37. What is Workflow in SAP?
Workflows allows automation of business processes according to defined rules with help of events. It triggers subsequent tasks/programs based on conditions to complete entire flows.
38. What is SAP Gateway?
SAP Gateway provides simplified connectivity of SAP system from devices using OData interfaces. It offers platform and language independent restful interfaces using open standards.
<details> <summary>What are the categories in SAP certification?</summary>
SAP certifications are grouped into categories like Technical, Functional, Business Intelligence etc based on modules. Some popular ones are:
- SAP Technical – ABAP, Basis
- SAP Functional – SD, MM, PP, FICO
- Business Intelligence – BW, BO
- Database – HANA, ASE, MaxDB
- Application – CRM, SRM, SCM
</details> <details> <summary>How can I prepare for ABAP certification?</summary>
Here are some tips to prepare for ABAP certification:
- Go through certification curriculum and exam syllabus
- Cover ABAP study materials and reference books
- Attend classroom training or take online classes
- Get practical experience in using development tools
- Work on practice tests to assess your progress
- Give mock tests to get exam confidence
39. What skills are required to become an ABAP consultant?
Some key skills required to become an ABAP consultant are:
- Strong programming logic
- Knowledge of data structures and algorithms
- Database modeling techniques
- Debugging and troubleshooting ability
- Understanding of interface technologies
- Object oriented analysis and design skills
40. What are the job roles for an ABAP developer?
Some typical job roles for ABAP developers are:
- ABAP Programmer
- SAP Business Application Developer
- SAP Module Lead
- SAP Project Manager
- SAP Basis Consultant
- SAP Technical Analyst
41. What are career growth options for an ABAP professional?
ABAP professionals can progress in their career to roles like:
- Team Leads
- Project Managers
- Technical Architects
- Solution Architects
- Functional Analysts
- Technical Leads
- Basis Consultants
42. Can ABAP skills be used outside SAP domain?
Yes, ABAP programming experience helps build a strong background in enterprise software development concepts that are useful for non-SAP platforms like Java, .Net etc. The core logic and generic aspects can be reused across technologies.
43. What are LSMW and Batch input in SAP?
LSMW is data migration tool used for batch processing. Batch input is a dataset method to upload transactional data into SAP. Both support legacy data transfers.
44. What is STMS in SAP?
STMS (Software Transport Management System) allows moving code from a development instance to quality and production systems following transfer principles using buffers and queues.
45. What is SAP EarlyWatch in SAP administration?
EarlyWatch is a reporting service that provides SAP system health checks, performance indicators, security analytics and configuration benchmarks to optimize system environments proactively.
46. What language is used for writing ABAP code?
ABAP code is written in high level language that resembles German language words. Easy to use fixed format keywords allows productive coding. It ensures gentle learning curve for users.
47. What platforms support ABAP application development?
ABAP enables application development on-premise on SAP Netweaver platform as well as on cloud via SAP Cloud Platform ABAP Environment on public or private cloud infrastructure environments across various cloud vendors.
48. What licensing models are available for ABAP platforms?
SAP provides flexible licensing options for ABAP like user-based licensing for employees, processor licenses based on usage metrics and named user pricing for customers. Cloud options include pay-as-you-go and BYOL models.
49. Can I develop mobile apps with ABAP programming?
Yes, we can build engaging enterprise mobile apps using SAP technology like Fiori Elements that connect with ABAP based business logic and cloud services to enable robust mobile experiences across devices.
50. What are the latest and most promising SAP technologies for ABAP developers?
Some most promising SAP technologies to learn are SAP Cloud Platform, ABAP RESTful application programming model, OData services, Core Data Services, SAP Fiori, SAPUI5, SAP Gateway etc.