Biodiesel Seminar :
The usage of the vegetable oil as a source of fuel is as old as the diesel engine. Biodiesel is a fuel equal to the petrodiesel, the definition of biodiesel is as follows: The mono alky esters of long fatty acids derived from the renewable lipid feed stock such as vegetable oils or animal fats for use in diesel engines is known as biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel differs from one plant oil to the other.
More often the term biodiesel is improperly used but it refers to “B100” where “100” represent the percentage of biodiesel i.e. it is a pure fuel. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form but normally it is mixed with the other fuels. Mixed fuels are indicated by “B xx” where “xx” represents the percentage of biodiesel in the blend. The noun- toxic biodiesel comes from animal fats and plants where the major sources are soyabean oil including rapeseed, canola, palm, and cottonseed, sunflower, and peanut. Now that you know what biodiesel is, let’s move on to its making process.
Making of BioDiesel:
The most common method to produce the biodiesel is called as “transesterification” in which glycerin is obtained as a byproduct. For example; 100 pounds of vegetable oil is reacted with 10 pounds of methanol to yield 10 pounds of glycerin and 100 pounds of biodiesel.
There are three vital ways to make biodiesel for the present engines and these three methods are as follows:
- Initial method is that vegetable oil can be mixed with the other fuels.
- In the second method straight vegetable oil can be used.
- The final method is the use of cooking grease.
First method: So, in all the three methods the first method seems to be very comfortable but it is not that simple or easy. In this method, the purpose of mixing the oil is to make the fuel thinner by decreasing the viscosity and this helps the fuel to flow the entire system without any difficulty.
Second method: The next method is producing the biodiesel by using the direct vegetable oil. For this a straight vegetable oil tank system is needed, have to replace the injectors, glow plugs and add the fuel heating. A two tank system of straight vegetable oil is better because it allows the oil to preheat and becomes thinner, by using this the vehicle starts and stops using the normal diesel and the shifts to the usage of biodiesel when the oil is enough hot.
Third method: In the third method the biodiesel can be produced from the used cooking grease. The acquired cooking grease is placed in a cleaning unit, which heats the grease and separates the waste from oil. After cleaning, certain chemicals must be added to finalize the process.
BIODIESEL Advantages :
- Biodiesel has huge advantages along with little disadvantages, the pure form of biodiesel i.e. B100 can decrease the releasing of carbon dioxide by 78% and reduces the carcinogenic qualities of diesel by 94%.
- Biodiesel can also decrease the U.S. dependence on other countries for oil and also upgrades the energy security.
- It also helps in the engines free movement by acting as a solvent, which aids to break the deposits within the engine that normally cause hinders.
- A normal opinion is that the use of 1% of biodiesel with other fuels may upgrade or increase its instability by 65%, along with that it is harmless non-toxic (about 10 times less poisonous than table salt).
- Pure biodiesel can be manufactured from renewable resources, it reduces global warming and also it is energy efficient.
- Generally, B100 comprises approximately 8% low energy per gallon, also have higher cloud point and pour point than diesel. B100 increases nitrogen oxide emission where it contributes to smog formation and also not consistent with metals and plastics. Pure biodiesel is not consistent with few gasket and hose substances, which may cause them to mollify, lowers the capacity and breach.
- So, to overcome these disadvantages blending is necessary and many manufacturing firms produce B5 and B20 which has the low percent of biodiesel.
- Hence, it is necessary to invent and discover new sources of fuel to lower the dependency on fuel based on petroleum because the present implementations can reduce the dependency only to a few extent.
- We have discussed here Benefits of Biodiesel and they are: High cetane number (average 45,8-56,9 units), High flash point (above +100), Good lubricating property, Absence of sulfur and aromatic hydrocarbons, Low toxicity of emissions, Virtually complete biodegradability (99% ), biodiesel are destroyed in water or soil for 28 days) and Zero balance of greenhouse gases.
Environmental Issues :
- Burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide
- Fossil fuels are a finite resource
Problems brought by Biodiesel :
- Certain biodiesel gels easily under cold temperature
- Deforestation for plantation
- Degrades rubber in old cars
- Synthetic rubbers that are resistant
Biodiesel Challenges :
- Cold Weather Operation (Chemistry)
- Manufacturing enough feedstock oil to replace a large segment of petroleum (biology, chemistry, physics, economics)
- Engine and emissions optimization (chemistry, physics)
The Future of Biodiesel :
- Should be considered for use as an substutute and not a primary fuel
- Short and long term environmental benefits will be worthwhile
- Storage Issues with Security and Transportation issues with high cost of delivered fuel contrasted to fossil fuels
- Fuel-supply reliability
- Lack of understanding of environmental impact – NOx emissions
- Complexity of biomass-power infrastructure contrasted to known well established coal and natural gas markets
Content of the Seminar and pdf report for Biodiesel :
- What is Biodiesel?
- Benefits of Biodiesel
- Environmental Issues
- Problems brought by Biodiesel
- Biodiesel Samples
- Biodiesel Background
- The Future of Biodiesel