100 TOP Operating Systems LAB VIVA Questions and Answers – CSE

Operating Systems VIVA Questions :-

1.What is an operating system?

2.What are the various components of a computer system?

3.What is purpose of different operating systems?

4.What are the different operating systems?

6.What is a boot-strap program?

7.What is BIOS?

8.Explain the concept of the batched operating systems?

9.Explain the concept of the multi-programmed operating systems?

10.Explain the concept of the time sharing operating systems?

11.Explain the concept of the multi-processor systems or parallel systems?

12.Explain the concept of the Distributed systems?

13.Explain the concept of Real-time operating systems?

14.Define MULTICS?

15.What is SCSI?

16.What is a sector?

17.What is cache-coherency?

18.What are residence monitors?

19.What is dual-mode operation?

20.What are the operating system components?

21.What are operating system services?

22.What are system calls?

23.What is a layered approach and what is its advantage?

24.What is micro kernel approach and site its advantages?

25.What are a virtual machines and site their advantages?

Operating Systems VIVA Questions with Answers :-

26.What is a process?

27.What are the states of a process?

28.What are various scheduling queues?

29.What is a job queue?

30.What is a ready queue?

31.What is a device queue?

32.What is a long term scheduler & short term schedulers?

33.What is context switching?

34.What are the disadvantages of context switching?

35.What are co-operating processes?

36.What is a thread?

37.What are the benefits of multithreaded programming?

38.What are types of threads?

39.Which category the java thread do fall in?

40.What are multithreading models?

41.What is a P-thread?

42.What are java threads?

43.What is process synchronization?

44.What is critical section problem?

45.What is a semaphore?

46.What is bounded-buffer problem?

47.What is readers-writers problem?

48.What is dining philosophers’ problem?

49.What is a deadlock?

50.What are necessary conditions for dead lock?

OS LAB VIVA Questions ::

51.What is resource allocation graph?

This is the graphical description of deadlocks. This graph consists of a set of edges E and a set of vertices V. The set of vertices V is partitioned into two different types of nodes P={p1,p2,…,pn}, the set consisting of all the resources in the system, R={r1,r2,…rn}.A directed edge Pi?Rj is called a request edge; a directed edge Rj?
Pi is called an assignment edge. Pictorially we represent a process Pi as a circle, and each resource type Rj as square.Since resource type Rj may have more than one instance, we represent each such instance as a dot within the square.When a request is fulfilled the request edge is transformed into an assignment edge. When a process releases a resource the assignment edge is deleted. If the cycle involves a set of resource types, each of which has only a single instance, then a deadlock has occurred. Each process involved in the cycle is deadlock.

52.What are deadlock prevention techniques?

  1. Mutual exclusion : Some resources such as read only files shouldn’t be mutually exclusive. They should be sharable. But some resources such as printers must be
    mutually exclusive.
  2. Hold and wait : To avoid this condition we have to ensure that if a process is requesting for a resource it should not hold any resources.
  3. No preemption : If a process is holding some resources and requests another resource that cannot be immediately allocated to it (that is the process must wait), then all the resources currently being held are preempted(released autonomously).
  4. Circular wait : the way to ensure that this condition never holds is to impose a total ordering of all the resource types, and to require that each process requests resources in an increasing order of enumeration.

53.What is a safe state and a safe sequence?

A system is in safe state only if there exists a safe sequence. A sequence of processes is a safe sequence for the current allocation state if, for each Pi, the resources that the Pi can still request can be satisfied by the currently available resources plus the resources held by all the Pj, with j

54.What are the deadlock avoidance algorithms?

A dead lock avoidance algorithm dynamically examines the resource-allocation state to ensure that a circular wait condition can never exist. The resource allocation state is defined by the number of available and allocated resources, and the maximum demand of the process.There are two algorithms:
1. Resource allocation graph algorithm
2. Banker’s algorithm
a. Safety algorithm
b. Resource request algorithm

55. What are the basic functions of an operating system?

Operating system controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various applications programs for various uses. Operating system acts as resource allocator and manager. Since there are many possibly conflicting requests for resources the operating system must decide which requests are allocated resources to operating the computer system efficiently and fairly. Also operating system is control program which controls the user programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer. It is especially concerned with the operation and control of I/O devices.

56.Explain briefly about, processor, assembler, compiler, loader, linker and the functions executed by them.

  • Processor:- A processor is the part a computer system that executes instructions .It is also called a CPU
  • Assembler:- An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer’s processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language.
  • Compiler:- A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming language and turns them into machine language or “code” that a computer’s processor uses. Typically, a programmer writes language statements in a language such as Pascal or C one line at a time using an editor. The file that is created contains what are called the source statements. The programmer then runs the appropriate language compiler, specifying the name of the file that contains the source statements.
  • Loader:- In a computer operating system, a loader is a component that locates a given program (which can be an application or, in some cases, part of the operating system itself) in offline storage (such as a hard disk), loads it into main storage (in a personal computer, it’s called random access memory), and gives that program control of the compute
  • Linker:- Linker performs the linking of libraries with the object code to make the object code into an executable machine code.

57. What is a Real-Time System?

A real time process is a process that must respond to the events within a certain time period. A real time operating system is an operating system that can run real time processes successfully

58. What is the difference between Hard and Soft real-time systems?

A hard real-time system guarantees that critical tasks complete on time. This goal requires that all delays in the system be bounded from the retrieval of the stored data to the time that it takes the operating system to finish any request made of it. A soft real time system where a critical real-time task gets priority over other tasks and retains that priority until it completes. As in hard real time systems kernel delays need to be bounded

59. What is virtual memory?

A virtual memory is hardware technique where the system appears to have more memory that it actually does. This is done by time-sharing, the physical memory and storage parts of the memory one disk when they are not actively being used

60. What is cache memory?

Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data), it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data

61.Differentiate between Complier and Interpreter?

An interpreter reads one instruction at a time and carries out the actions implied by that instruction. It does not perform any translation. But a compiler translates the entire instructions.

62.What are different tasks of Lexical Analysis?

The purpose of the lexical analyzer is to partition the input text, delivering a sequence of comments and basic symbols. Comments are character sequences to be ignored, while basic symbols are character sequences that correspond to terminal symbols of the grammar defining the phrase structure of the input

63. Why paging is used?

Paging is solution to external fragmentation problem which is to permit the logical address space of a process to be noncontiguous, thus allowing a process to be allocating physical memory wherever the latter is available.

64. What is Context Switch?

Switching the CPU to another process requires saving the state of the old process and loading the saved state for the new process. This task is known as a context switch.Context-switch time is pure overhead, because the system does no useful work while switching. Its speed varies from machine to machine, depending on the memory speed, the number of registers which must be copied, the existed of special instructions(such as a single instruction to load or store all registers).

65. Distributed Systems?

Distribute the computation among several physical processors.
Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines
Advantages of distributed systems:
->Resources Sharing
->Computation speed up – load sharing
->Reliability
->Communications

66.Difference between Primary storage and secondary storage?

Main memory: – only large storage media that the CPU can access directly.
Secondary storage: – extension of main memory that provides large nonvolatile storage capacity.

67. What is CPU Scheduler?

  • Selects from among the processes in memory that are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them.
  • CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process:
    1.Switches from running to waiting state.
    2.Switches from running to ready state.
    3.Switches from waiting to ready.
    4.Terminates.
  • Scheduling under 1 and 4 is nonpreemptive.
  • All other scheduling is preemptive.

68. What do you mean by deadlock?

Deadlock is a situation where a group of processes are all blocked and none of them can become unblocked until one of the other becomes unblocked.The simplest deadlock is two processes each of which is waiting for a message from the other

69. What is Dispatcher?

->Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-term scheduler; this involves:
Switching context
Switching to user mode
Jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart that program
Dispatch latency – time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another running.

70. What is Throughput, Turnaround time, waiting time and Response time?

Throughput – number of processes that complete their execution per time unit
Turnaround time – amount of time to execute a particular process
Waiting time – amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue
Response time – amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced, not output (for time-sharing environment)

71. Explain the difference between microkernel and macro kernel?

Micro-Kernel: A micro-kernel is a minimal operating system that performs only the essential functions of an operating system. All other operating system functions are performed by system processes.
Monolithic: A monolithic operating system is one where all operating system code is in a single executable image and all operating system code runs in system mode.

72.What is multi tasking, multi programming, multi threading?

Multi programming: Multiprogramming is the technique of running several programs at a time using timesharing.It allows a computer to do several things at the same time. Multiprogramming creates logical parallelism.
The concept of multiprogramming is that the operating system keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously. The operating system selects a job from the job pool and starts executing a job, when that job needs to wait for any i/o operations the CPU is switched to another job. So the main idea here is that the CPU is never idle.
Multi tasking: Multitasking is the logical extension of multiprogramming .The concept of multitasking is quite similar to multiprogramming but difference is that the switching between jobs occurs so frequently that the users can interact with each program while it is running. This concept is also known as time-sharing systems. A time-shared operating system uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of time-shared system.
Multi threading: An application typically is implemented as a separate process with several threads of control. In some situations a single application may be required to perform several similar tasks for example a web server accepts client requests for web pages, images, sound, and so forth. A busy web server may have several of clients concurrently accessing it. If the web server ran as a traditional single-threaded process, it would be able to service only one client at a time. The amount of time that a client might have to wait for its request to be serviced could be enormous.
So it is efficient to have one process that contains multiple threads to serve the same purpose. This approach would multithread the web-server process, the server would create a separate thread that would listen for client requests when a request was made rather than creating another process it would create another thread to service the request.
So to get the advantages like responsiveness, Resource sharing economy and utilization of multiprocessor architectures multithreading concept can be used

73. Give a non-computer example of preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling?

Consider any system where people use some kind of resources and compete for them. The non-computer examples for preemptive scheduling the traffic on the single lane road if there is emergency or there is an ambulance on the road the other vehicles give path to the vehicles that are in need. The example for preemptive scheduling is people standing in queue for tickets.

74. What is starvation and aging?

Starvation: Starvation is a resource management problem where a process does not get the resources it needs for a long time because the resources are being allocated to other processes.
Aging: Aging is a technique to avoid starvation in a scheduling system. It works by adding an aging factor to the priority of each request. The aging factor must increase the request’s priority as time passes and must ensure that a request will eventually be the highest priority request (after it has waited long enough)

75. Different types of Real-Time Scheduling?

Hard real-time systems – required to complete a critical task within a guaranteed amount of time.
Soft real-time computing – requires that critical processes receive priority over less fortunate ones.

76. What are the Methods for Handling Deadlocks?

Ensure that the system will never enter a deadlock state.
->Allow the system to enter a deadlock state and then recover.
->Ignore the problem and pretend that deadlocks never occur in the system; used by most operating systems, including
UNIX.

77. What is a Safe State and its’ use in deadlock avoidance?

When a process requests an available resource, system must decide if immediate allocation leaves the system in a safe state
->System is in safe state if there exists a safe sequence of all processes.
->Sequence is safe if for each Pi, the resources that Pi can still request can be satisfied by
currently available resources + resources held by all the Pj, with j
If Pi resource needs are not immediately available, then Pi can wait until all Pj have finished.
When Pj is finished, Pi can obtain needed resources, execute, return allocated resources, and terminate.
When Pi terminates, Pi+1 can obtain its needed resources, and so on.
->Deadlock Avoidance Þ ensure that a system will never enter an unsafe state.

78. Recovery from Deadlock?

Process Termination:
->Abort all deadlocked processes.
->Abort one process at a time until the deadlock cycle is eliminated.
->In which order should we choose to abort?
Priority of the process.
How long process has computed, and how much longer to completion.
Resources the process has used.
Resources process needs to complete.
How many processes will need to be terminated?
Is process interactive or batch?
Resource Preemption:
->Selecting a victim – minimize cost.
->Rollback – return to some safe state, restart process for that state.
->Starvation – same process may always be picked as victim, include number of rollback in cost factor.

79.Difference between Logical and Physical Address Space?

->The concept of a logical address space that is bound to a separate physical address space is central to proper memory management.
Logical address – generated by the CPU; also referred to as virtual address.
Physical address – address seen by the memory unit.
->Logical and physical addresses are the same in compile-time and load-time address-binding schemes; logical (virtual) and physical addresses differ in execution-time address-binding scheme

80. Binding of Instructions and Data to Memory?

Address binding of instructions and data to memory addresses can happen at three different stages
Compile time: If memory location known a priori, absolute code can be generated; must recompile code if starting location changes.
Load time: Must generate relocatable code if memory location is not known at compile time.
Execution time: Binding delayed until run time if the process can be moved during its execution from one memory segment to another. Need hardware support for address maps (e.g., base and limit registers).

81. What is Memory-Management Unit (MMU)?

Hardware device that maps virtual to physical address.
In MMU scheme, the value in the relocation register is added to every address generated by a user process at the time it is sent to memory.
->The user program deals with logical addresses; it never sees the real physical addresses

82. What are Dynamic Loading, Dynamic Linking and Overlays?

Dynamic Loading:

  • Routine is not loaded until it is called
  • Better memory-space utilization; unused routine is never loaded.
  • Useful when large amounts of code are needed to handle infrequently occurring cases.
  • No special support from the operating system is required implemented through program design.
    Dynamic Linking:
  • Linking postponed until execution time.
  • Small piece of code, stub, used to locate the appropriate memory-resident library routine.
  • Stub replaces itself with the address of the routine, and executes the routine.
  • Operating system needed to check if routine is in processes’ memory address.
  • Dynamic linking is particularly useful for libraries.
    Overlays:
  • Keep in memory only those instructions and data that are needed at any given time.
  • Needed when process is larger than amount of memory allocated to it.
  • Implemented by user, no special support needed from operating system, programming design of overlay structure is complex.

83. What is fragmentation? Different types of fragmentation?

Fragmentation occurs in a dynamic memory allocation system when many of the free blocks are too small to satisfy any request.
External Fragmentation: External Fragmentation happens when a dynamic memory allocation algorithm allocates some memory and a small piece is left over that cannot be effectively used. If too much external fragmentation occurs, the amount of usable memory is drastically reduced.Total memory space exists to satisfy a request, but it is not contiguous
Internal Fragmentation: Internal fragmentation is the space wasted inside of allocated memory blocks because of restriction on the allowed sizes of allocated blocks.Allocated memory may be slightly larger than requested memory; this size difference is memory internal to a partition, but not being used Reduce external fragmentation by compaction
->Shuffle memory contents to place all free memory together in one large block.
->Compaction is possible only if relocation is dynamic, and is done at execution time.

84. Explain Demand Paging, Page fault interrupt, and Trashing?

Demand Paging: Demand paging is the paging policy that a page is not read into memory until it is requested, that is, until there is a page fault on the page.
Page fault interrupt: A page fault interrupt occurs when a memory reference is made to a page that is not in memory.The present bit in the page table entry will be found to be off by the virtual memory hardware and it will signal an interrupt.
Trashing: The problem of many page faults occurring in a short time, called “page thrashing,”

85. Explain Segmentation with paging?

Segments can be of different lengths, so it is harder to find a place for a segment in memory than a page. With segmented virtual memory, we get the benefits of virtual memory but we still have to do dynamic storage allocation of physical memory. In order to avoid this, it is possible to combine segmentation and paging into a two-level virtual memory system. Each segment descriptor points to page table for that segment.This give some of the advantages of paging (easy placement) with some of the advantages of segments (logical division of the program).

86. Under what circumstances do page faults occur? Describe the actions taken by the operating system when a page fault occurs?

A page fault occurs when an access to a page that has not been brought into main memory takes place. The operating system verifies the memory access, aborting the program if it is invalid. If it is valid, a free frame is located and I/O is requested to read the needed page into the free frame. Upon completion of I/O, the process table and page table are updated and the instruction is restarted

87. What is the cause of thrashing? How does the system detect thrashing? Once it detects thrashing, what can the system do to eliminate this problem?

Thrashing is caused by under allocation of the minimum number of pages required by a process, forcing it to continuously page fault. The system can detect thrashing by evaluating the level of CPU utilization as compared to the level of multiprogramming. It can be eliminated by reducing the level of multiprogramming.

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