1. How Many Airports Does Aai Manage?
As per information available on AAI’s website: AAI manages 125 airports, which include 18 International Airport, 07 Customs Airports, 78 Domestic Airports and 26 Civil Enclaves at Defense airfields.
2. When Was Aai Formed?
Airports Authority of India (AAI) was constituted by an Act of Parliament and came into being on 1st April 1995 by merging erstwhile National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority of India.
3. Who Is Board Member (air Navigation Services) Of Aai?
Currently, Mr. Anil Kumar Dutta is Member (Air Navigation Services), AAI.
4. What Is Icao?
International Civil Aviation Organization was established in 1944. The ICAO works closely with its member states (read as countries) and other civil aviation groups to finalize the Standards and Recommended Practices (which are called SARPs) to bring the uniformity in regulations and operations followed by individual countries.
5. Who Is The Regulatory Agency For Indian Civil Aviation?
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the regulatory body for civil aviation. Ms. M. Sathiyavathy is current Director General of Civil Aviation.
6. What Is Green Field Airport?
An airport that is built from scratch on a new site which is undeveloped is called Green Field Airport. So building a Green Field Airport has no constraints due prior work/existing infrastructure etc.Example: Rajiv Gandhi Intl. Airport, Hyderabad. Durgapur (West Bengal) has India’s first private Green Field Airport.
7. What Is Brown Field Airport?
The term Brown Field is associated with upgrading or modifying the already existing infrastructure, hence those airports that are redeveloped/upgraded/modified are called Brown Field Airports. Example: IGI Airport, New Delhi.
8. What Do You Know About Mh17?
Flight MH17 was a Malaysian Airlines flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur. The flight was travelling over the conflict-hit region on 17 July 2014 when it disappeared from RADAR. The flight crashed after being hit by a missile over Eastern Ukraine. A total of 283 passengers were killed in this accident.
9. What Do You Know About Mh370?
MH370 was a Malaysian Airlines flight which was en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on 8 March 2014 when air traffic control unit lost contact with it. Despite an extensive search of the southern Indian Ocean, no trace of the aircraft had been found until the discovery of the aircraft’s part on Reunion Island in July’15 which was confirmed to be part of MH370 Flight.Investigators are continuing to search for the rest of the plane.
10. Name The Two Indian Airports That Are To Be Managed By A Foreign Company?
Ahmadabad and Jaipur Airports will be managed by Singapore’s Changi Airport International Group. This is the first time in country that a foreign company has been allowed to manage Indian Airports.
11. Who Is Operator Of New Delhi Airport?
GMR Group manages airport operations at IGI Airport, New Delhi whereas AAI manages Air Traffic Services.
12. Who Is Operator Of Mumbai Airport?
GVK Group manages airport operations at CSI Airport, Mumbai whereas AAI manages Air Traffic Services.
13. Where Is The Tallest Atc Tower In India And World?
Tallest ATC tower of India is in Mumbai (82m). Once completed, Delhi ATC Tower will be tallest tower in India with a height of 101.3m.
14. Where Is World’s Tallest Atc Tower?
World’s tallest ATC Tower is located at Bangkok’s Suvarnabhumi Airport with an approximate height of 132m.
15. When Did The First Civil Flight Take Place In India?
India’s first commercial civil flight took place on 18 February, between Allahabad and Naini (now a part of Allahabad itself), It was flown by Henri Piquet, covering a distance of 6 miles. This is considered to be the world’s first airmail service and the beginning of civil aviation in India.
16. When Did India Celebrated 100 Years Of Civil Aviation?
In the year 2011, India celebrated 100 years of Civil Aviation in the country commemorating the first flight that took place in 1911 between Allahabad and Naini.
17. Who Is Father Of Indian Aviation?
Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy (JRD) Tata is known as Father of Indian Aviation. In 1929, he became the first person in the country to be issued with a pilot’s license.
18. Which Is The Largest Aircraft In The World?
Largest Aircraft in the world is Antonov 225 (Antonov is a Russian Aircraft Manufacturer) which is a Cargo Aircraft while World’s Largest Passenger Aircraft isAirbus 380 (Airbus is European Aircraft Manufacturer).
19. Which Is World’s First Solar-powered Airport?
Cochin International Airport is the first airport in the world that completely operates on solar power. Cochin airport’s power solar power plant is producing enough electricity to be used for all the operational functions.
20. Which Is India’s Busiest Airport In Terms Of Air Traffic Movements?
Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi is India’s busiest airport in terms of air traffic movements as well as Passenger handling. Mumbai is at number two while Bengaluru is at third spot.
21. Why Do You Want To Become An Atc?
A royal and respected job with good skills requirement which will add to my personality.
22. What Is Radar And How Does It Work?
RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging.
Radar transmits the electromagnetic energy pulses in the space. These pulses get reflected from an object e.g. an aircraft. This received pulse which has very low power as compared to transmitted pulse is called Echo. The Radar system uses this echo signal to calculate distance and direction of the reflecting object.
23. What Are The Various Radar Bands?
Radar operates on UHF and SHF because:
These frequencies are free from disturbance.
Higher frequency, shorter wavelength, RADAR more effective (as shorter wavelengths are reflected more efficiently.)
24. What Is Unambiguous Range Of The Radar?
The Unambiguous range is the maximum range at which a target can be located so as to guarantee that the leading edge of the echo pulse from that target is received before transmission begins for the next pulse. The pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) determines this maximum unambiguous range of given radar before ambiguities start to occur.
This range can be determined by using the following equations:
Rmax = c * ( PRT – PW )/2
Here c= speed of light; PRT=1/PRF
25. What Is Duty Cycle?
Duty cycle basically represents the fraction of time that a system is in active state or in other words, it is the percentage of one period in which a signal is active.
For example, if a system transmits a pulse for 1 second and then waits for 9 seconds to transmit next pulse, then we cans say that system is active (ON) for 1 sec. and inactive (OFF) for next 9 sec. So total time= 10 seconds. Hence duty cycle is 0.1 (ON-time/Total time).
For a RADAR system, Duty cycle can be found out by multiplying pulse width and pulse-repetition frequency.
26. What Is Transponder?
Transponder can be summed up as combination of TRANSmitter+resPONDER. Atransponder is a device used in wireless communications, monitoring, or control device. It receives the incoming signal and automatically responds to this signal.
In Air navigation, a transponder is fitted in the aircraft which responds (by providing aircraft identification and other useful data such as speed, direction, altitude of the aircraft) to the interrogating signal sent by Ground based secondary radar.
Up-link frequency of Secondary radar: 1030MHz, Down-link frequency of Transponder: 1090 MHz.
27. What Are Advantages And Disadvantages Of Secondary Radar?
Reply signal transmitted by Transponder is very strong (unlike Echo signal in case of Radar), this provides good detection capability independent of clutter and weather.
The transmitting power required of the ground station for a given range is much reduced, thus providing considerable economy.
The signal received from the Transponder offers a lot of details of the target such as Speed, Direction, Altitude, identification of the target etc.
It depends on aircraft avionics, so the aircraft/target with no transponder cannot utilize the benefits of secondary radar.
If the target is not cooperating then Secondary radar will not be able to provide any information. Just like in 09/11 attacks on America when terrorists switched off the transponders of hijacked aircraft and it was impossible for ATC to trace those aircraft. So Secondary radar needs to be used in conjunction with the primary radar in order to avoid such situations to get repeated.
28. What Is Difference Between Primary And Secondary Radar?
Primary Radar is used to identify targets by transmitting high-frequency signals toward it. The transmitted pulses (also called Echo) are reflected by the target and then received by the same radar. This echo signal is processed to extract target information.
On the other hand, Secondary Radar relies on the active signals transmitted by the transponder unit on the airborne target (e.g. an aircraft). Transponder is a radio receiver that receives the 1030 MHz signals (interrogation signal transmitted by Radar) and transmits 1090 MHz pulse (reply messagewith target details) back to the Radar.
In context of ATC: Primary Radar is both an advantage and a disadvantage. With Primary radar, even if the target is not replying the interrogation signals or does not even have transponder unit, ATC Unit can trace/locate it on the RADAR although target identification is not possible (Disadvantage). Primary radar is still used by ATC today as a backup/complementary system to secondary radar, although its coverage and information is more limited.
Secondary Radar provides various details (like object identification code, altitude, direction, speed etc.) of the target which are transmitted back by a strong response signal by the transponder.
29. What Are The Applications Of Radar In Atc?
Various types of Radars used in Air Traffic Control are as:
Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR): As the name suggests ARSR (an application of SSR) is long range radar with a typical range of 300 NM. It operates in L-band and is used in Area Control Center to keep surveillance of en-route aircraft.
Surface Movement Radar (SMR): SMR (basically a Primary Surveillance Radar) is used to provide clear display of all the aircraft (and other well-equipped vehicles) on the ground as an aid to the Tower and Ground Controllers to manage the traffic safely and efficiently on the ground.
Precision Approach Radar (PAR): It is basically an SSR which assists the Air Traffic Controllers working in Approach Control position. PAR provides information on identification, air speed, direction and altitude of aircraft in the air within the vicinity of the airport.
30. What Is Gnss?
GNSS is an acronym for Global Navigation Satellite Systems. GNSS uses cluster of navigation satellites to trace or pinpoint the user-location. The signals received from GNSS navigation satellites can also be used to locate other objects, people or goods at any time.Examples: GPS, GAGAN.
31. What Are Various Gnss Systems In The World?
Some of the GNSS in the world are: GLONASS (Russia), GALILEO (Europe), GPS (USA), GAGAN (India), BeiDou-2 (China).
32. What Is Gps?
GPS or Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based system owned and maintained by USA Govt. It is an all-weather system, used to provide locations and time information anywhere in the world.A simple example is GPS receiver installed in radio cabs. GPS can provide real time 3D positioning, navigation and timing anywhere on or near the earth. GPS system is used extensively by military, commercial and civil users worldwide.
Working: The GPS concept is based on time. The satellites carry very stable atomic clocks that are synchronized to each other and to ground clocks. GPS satellites continuously transmit their current time and position. A GPS receiver monitors multiple satellites and solves equations to determine the exact position of the receiver and its deviation from true time.
33. What Is Difference Between Gps And Gagan?
GPS is a satellite based navigation system that is used to provide real time position and time data to the users having GPS receivers. As of now, GPS system has 31 satellites in its constellations which transmit signal to locate any object on or near the earth.
On the other hand, GAGAN is an augmentation system that augments the already existing GPS constellation. GAGAN provide more accuracy than GPS. This accuracy is result of processing of GPS satellites data at GAGAN Master Control Centre and sending the corrected data to the intended user through geostationary satellites.
34. What Is Gagan And How Does It Work?
GAGAN is the acronym for GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation. GAGAN is a joint venture of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) and AAI (Airports Authority of India). Let’s understand working of GAGAN step by step.
GPS satellite data is collected by a network of precisely surveyed ground reference stations which are known as INRES(INdian REference Stations). These INRES are strategically positioned across the country so that entire Indian Airspace can be covered.Total 14 INRES.
Data collected by INRESs is sent to Bengaluru-based INMCC (INdian Master Control Centre)which in turn generates messages to correct any signal errors.
These correction messages are then uplinkedthrough INLUS(INdian Land Uplink Station) and broadcast through communication satellites (Geostationary) to the user (Aircraft).
35. What Are The Benefits Of Gagan?
One of the prime benefits of GAGAN will be related to Aviation sector where it will provide enhanced accuracy, availability and integrity to GPS signals for all the phases of a flight. It will result in fuel savings and decreased carbon emissions. In addition, GAGAN will provide benefits in all modes of transportation like railways, highways, maritime.
36. In Which Layer Do Aircraft Prefer To Fly And Why?
Generally commercial airliners fly in stratosphere or tropopause region which lies at altitudes of 9–12 km (30,000–39,000 ft).This region is clear of bad weather and has small amount of clouds as compared to troposphere. In other words, stratosphere does not have turbulence, so the aircraft can fly more smoothly. It enables the aircraft to save fuel.
37. What Type Of Fuel Is Used In Aircraft?
The fuel used (in aircraft with gas turbine engines) is called Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) or Jet Fuel, which is generally very pure, has anti-knock additives and has very high calorific values.2 Widely used ATFs are unleaded Kerosene(Jet A-1, it is used by most of commercial airlines in the world) or Naphtha kerosene blend (Jet B). Other type of fuel used (by Aircraft with internal combustion engines) is AvGas (Aviation gasoline) which is Petroleum based fuel.
38. What Are Important Parts That Control The Movement Of Aircraft In The Air?
Although every part of an aircraft plays a role in the operation of the aircraft and that is why these parts are required to be mounted on the fuselage; however these three parts are very crucial for the movement of the aircraft along the three axes (Pitch, Roll and Yaw).
Rudder: Allows aircraft to move about Yaw axis i.e. Aircraft will turn left or right with the movement of the Rudder.
Elevator: As the name suggests, Elevator is used to move the aircraft along the Pitch axis i.e. Aircraft will move up or down with elevator’s movement.
Aileron: Aileron allows the aircraft to rotate i.e. movement of aircraft along the Roll axis.
39. What Is Solar Aircraft? Which Solar Aircraft Was In News In Last Year (2015)?
Solar plane is an aircraft that is powered by solar energy. The aircraft that was in news in Solar Impulse (Si2), a single-seater aircraft which is capable of flying day and night by harnessing the solar energy. It a next generation aircraft which is on Round-the-world flight and started its 35000 kms journey on March 9, 2015 from Abu Dhabi (UAE). In India, it first landed in Ahmedabad and then Varanasi before leaving for Myanmar. The mission of this flight is: ‘Around the world to promote clean technologies.’
40. What Is Antenna?
Antenna is an electrical device used to convert electrical signals to radio waves and vice versa. A basic antenna has two parts i.e. Transmitter and Receiver.
41. What Is Duplexer?
Duplexer is a device used in communication systems which can eliminate the need of separate transmitter and receiver antenna. It alternatively switches the single antenna between transmitter and receiver. The duplexer also prevents high-power transmitted pulses to enter the receiver as it might destroy the receiver which is highly power-sensitive device.
42. What Is Ads-b?
ADS-B is an acronym for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast.ADS-B system uses transmissions from aircraft to provide geographical position, pressure altitude data, positional integrity measures, flight identity, 24 bit aircraft address, velocity and other data which have been determined by airborne sensors.
43. What Is Critical Frequency?
In Sky wave propagation, Critical frequency is the limiting frequency at or below which wave is reflected back from the ionosphere, above critical frequency the wave penetrates the ionosphere and never comes back.So for sky wave propagation the value of frequency f≤ fc.
44. In Which Frequency Band Atc Communication Takes Place?
VHF Band: Generally Pilot-ATC Communication takes place in this band. However sometimes HF Band is used as well for long range communication where VHF communication is not possible. You must know that with the increase in frequency, Range of communication gets decreased.
45. What Is Mach Number?
Mach number is a common term used in Aviation world that denotes the ratio of air speed to the local speed of sound, e.g. Mach 1 denotes the speed equal to the speed of sound.
46. What Is Supersonic Aircraft?
A supersonic aircraft is an aircraft which can exceed the speed of sound (Mach 1.0) in level flight. (Level flight means when aircraft is moving at a fixed altitude i.e. not climbing or descending). Concorde was a supersonic aircraft.
47. Why Uplink And Downlink Frequencies Are Different For Satellite Or Mobile Communication?
Uplink (fu) and Downlink frequencies (fd) are different so that there is no interference. Remember that in satellite communication: fu>fd whereas in Mobile Communication fd>fu.
Reason is higher the frequency, higher will be the energy requirement.
48. What Is The Speed Of Sound?
Speed of sound varies with the temperature. The speed is proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature, giving an increase of about 0.6 m/s per degree Celsius. Some values are: 340m/s at Sea Level (Temp. 15 C), 331m/s at 0 C.