300+ TOP AQUACULTURE Interview Questions and Answers

Aquaculture Interview Questions for freshers experienced :-

1. Do we need a permit to stock fish into natural waterways or impoundments?
Yes – a permit is required to stock fish into any public impoundment, natural waterway, river, billabong, lake, wetland, stream etc

2. Which species are grown in our country?
The main species grown in Canada are salmon, mussels, oysters and trout. Canada also produces steelhead, arctic char, Atlantic cod, sablefish, geoducks, Atlantic halibut, quahogs, white sturgeon, tilapia and scallops.

3. What educational courses are available for aquaculture?
There are a number of courses on aquaculture available, both through Universities and Fisheries Training Institutes like Entebbe Uganda.

4. Is farmed fish really as healthy as wild fish?
EU legislation sets strict rules, including maximum levels for contaminants, to ensure that our food is safe. These limits are the same for both farmed and wild fish whilst a strict system of official controls ensures that only healthy food arrives on our tables whether it comes from the EU or from abroad.

5. How much does aquaculture contribute to our economy?
Our aquaculture industry generated $969 million in direct sales in 2006, and well over $1 billion in indirect value to the rural Canadian economy. Salmon accounts for approximately 80 percent of the industry’s value.

6. Why do we need aquaculture?
The output of the world’s wild fisheries is either steady or declining, yet the human population continues to grow. Aquaculture already supplies half the world’s seafood consumed by humans. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forecasts a global seafood shortage of 50 – 80 million tonnes by 2030, and aquaculture will help meet that growing demand.

7. Do we need a permit to stock our farm dam with fish?
No – a permit is not required provided that the farm dam is man-made and located on a private property, and the species to be stocked comply with all of the department’s policy.

8. How are fish farmed?
Shellfish such as mussels and oysters are grown on ropes, poles or table-like structures. They require clean water to feed on the nutrients suspended in the water. Marine fish such as salmon and sea bass are farmed in large net pens suspended from the sea’s surface. Freshwater fish such as trout are usually farmed in a series of tanks through which river water is diverted. Other freshwater fish such as carp are farmed in large lakes and ponds.

9. How are predators controlled by aquaculture companies?
Most predators, which may include seals, birds of prey and raccoons, are protected by federal or provincial law. The most common control methods are barriers – such as nets, covers or building enclosures – auditory deterrents and removal. Firearms are used only as a last resort.

10. What are the major species farmed in the EU?
Approximately 50% of the aquaculture production in the EU is shellfish. Mussels and oysters are the most popular shellfish. Marine fish such as salmon, sea bream and sea bass represent about 27% of our fish farm produce whilst freshwater fish such as trout and carp account for 23% of fish farmed in the EU. The species farmed in the EU are very diverse and include clams, scallops, lobsters, and sturgeon (caviar). Algae production is a developing sector.

AQUACULTURE Interview Questions
AQUACULTURE Interview Questions

11. Do we need a permit to conduct aquaculture?
Aquaculture as defined by the Fisheries Management Act does require a permit. There are different types of permit depending on the type of activity you are doing, covering everything from hatchery, fish out, land and lease based culture.
More information on the types of permits and the permit application process can be obtained from the department’s web site or by talking to staff from the Aquaculture unit. If you only wish to produce fish in farm dams for your own consumption, an aquaculture permit is not required.

12. What major challenges and problems did you face at your last position?
Our farm is located in the villages. It was very difficult to competent employees because of the location and the road leading to the farm.

13. What other methods besides coastal and enclosed tank systems are being used?
There are aquaponics farms that use wastewater from the fish tanks to fertilize crops while filtering the water. This essentially eliminates a lot of waste while creating a usable by-product. It’s a very efficient way to recapture waste products and maximize profits.

14. What is feed conversion ratio?
Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is calculated from the number of kilograms of feed used to produce one kilogram of fish. Feeding farmed fish is more efficient than feeding land-based animals, and the average FCR for farmed fish is close to 1:1.

15. Is there a market for tilapia in our country?
Yes, there assuredly is. Tilapia is an internationally traded, high-quality commodity. It is by no means a ‘trash fish’, as is maasbanker, for example. Tilapia compares favourably with hake in the quality of its flesh and lends itself to preparation in many ways. The traditional rural market is for small, whole, wild-coloured fish of 100g to 300g. The urban end of the market is for red tilapia of 450g to 600g.

16. Explain are there any aquaculture associations or support groups?
Yes, there are a number of aquaculture associations that cover a wide range of aquaculture sectors.

17. What was your greatest accomplishment as an aquaculture farm manager?
Working with the poor strain but still getting the numbers required.

18. Explain are farmed salmon different from the wild salmon?
Farmed and wild salmon have the same ancestors, and are genetically very similar. Salmon farmers select fish that have demonstrated good performance in terms of health, flesh quality and growth, and use these fish as broodstock.

19. What kind of feed is given to farmed fish?
Different types of feeds, mainly distinguished by variations in pellet size, fat and protein content, are used according to the life stage of the fish. Many ingredients are the same as those used in the production of feed for domestic animals, and are all natural products, including oilseed meals, grain products, protein-rich meals of animal origin (fish, poultry), fish and plant oils. Farmed shellfish rely on natural food in the water for their growth, and are not given additional food.

20. How long does it take for the fish to grow for marketable size?
This is where gullible investors fall prey. Before you go into cat fish farming, make sure you know your market or better still make sure you know your buyers and. What type of size they buy. For instance it will be difficult for you to get a buyer for a 500g fish if your market environments demands for a 1kg fish and vice versa. However, on average, you should be able to get a size aabout 1kg within 6 months PROVIDED you fed them well and they are raised with the best and healthy practices Read More

21. What type of fish is suitable for stocking into my farm dam?
Tilapia, Mirror carp are the most appropriate species for stocking.

22. Have you ever had to fire anyone and then how did you feel about that?
I fired quite a number of people. I felt very bad.

23. Tell us are diseases spread from farmed to wild fish?
There is no evidence to indicate that disease outbreaks at salmon farms have resulted in any increase in diseases in wild salmon. Research indicates that farmed salmon are at a higher risk of contracting a disease from wild fish. The aquaculture industry is strictly regulated and has developed disease vaccines, alternative treatments and good production practices to further reduce the incidence and severity of disease impacts.

24 Explain is farmed salmon safe?
Yes. All salmon – wild and farmed – is considered a healthy food choice with proven health benefits. According to the US Department of Agriculture, farmed Atlantic salmon has higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids than any of the five species of wild Pacific salmon. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency tests farmed salmon for contaminants, pesticides and dioxins.

25. Is it true that aquaculture can damage the environment?
Like any other human activity, aquaculture must be managed sustainable and responsibly. Like any kind of food producers, fish farmers are bound by environmental and health standards. The EU’s environmental standards are among the strictest and most effective in the world. But fish farmers must also play a wider proactive role in protecting the environment: for instance aquaculture ponds help preserve important natural landscapes and habitats for wild birds and other endangered species.

Shellfish contribute to cleaner coastal waters by absorbing nutrients which could otherwise damage water quality when they are present in too high concentrations. Ultimately, sustainability is also good business and fish farmers are at the forefront in monitoring and protecting the environment to ensure that there is no damaging impact.

26. What is aquaculture?
Aquaculture is defined by the Fisheries Management Act as cultivating fish or marine vegetation for the purposes of sale, trade or barter.

Aquaculture is also known as Fish Farming, Fish Culture, etc
Aquaculture production can be extensive (basic, limited capital & management, low production), semi-intensive (in between extensive and intensive) and intensive (high capital & management, high level of control and high production rates)

27 Explain is fouling a problem on shellfish growout sites?
Yes. Shellfish farmers combat fouling by control, avoidance and prevention. Fouling organisms include barnacles, tunicates, tube worms, bryozoans, hydroids (a small branching organism related to jellyfish and sea anemones) and encrusting sponge. Fouling is avoided by using a fresh water or saline solution, pressure washing, timing production cycles, maintaining high growth rates and exposure to air.

28. Explain do salmon escape from farms?
Escapes have been dramatically reduced since the early 1990s, and have been estimated at well below one percent in every year since 1995. A farmed salmon that escapes into the wild is poorly adapted for survival, and only small proportions of escaped salmon survive. A small number of farmed salmon interbreeding with a wild population has little impact because only small amounts of new genetic material is being added, and natural selection continues to play a role.

29. I have tried Barramundi and it’s an excellent product. It’s also one of the few fish farmed in enclosed tanks, which are better for the environment. Why aren’t there more of these in existence?
Land based systems are very costly to operate because of the use of sophisticated machinery and also because large amounts of water have to be heated/chilled, pumped, filtered, etc. This can be very costly, which makes construction and operation of these kinds of systems challenging from an economic perspective. That said, there are people doing it for freshwater and saltwater fish and shrimp, so it’s definitely possible.

30. How big is fish farming in the EU?
More than 80,000 people are already directly employed in European aquaculture, and this figure is expected to grow as more and more of our seafood is provided by EU fish farmers

European Union aquaculture produces around 1.25 million tonnes, more than 20 % of total EU fisheries production, with a total value of EUR 3.6 billion. Its share of total world aquaculture production is 1.5 % in terms of volume and just under 4 % in terms of value

The EU is also a major consumption market of seafood products in the world with 12.3 million tonnes consumed in 2011. Per capita EU consumption is 24.5 kg.

Seafood consumption varies a lot from one Member State to the other. Northern Member States are more focused on processed fish while Southern Member States still favour fresh products and devote a larger part of household expenditures to fish.

31. What are the regulatory or economic barriers faced by existing companies or new ventures that want to start fish farms?
There are many regulatory barriers to aquaculture because the industry is regulated by 7 different agencies: FDA, EPA, USDA, US Army Corps of Engineers, FWS, NMFS and the US Coast Guard. The individual states also have authority over their coastal and inland waters. There is no comprehensive regulatory structure in place for the aquaculture industry-each agency has a piece of it and this makes it difficult to know where to go and. What to do to be in compliance. Fish farmers don’t have a problem with following the rules-the problem is the absence of clear, easy-to-understand regulations.

In terms of economic barriers, it is really difficult to get a loan to start a fish farm. The main problem is that fish have a long growth period before they can be harvested. It can be at least 6 months before the fish are ready to be harvested. Bankers are unlikely to finance because of a long turn around time. There are also no government incentives to subsidize aquaculture like there are for other agricultural industries. There are only grant programs for aquaculture research, and the amount of investment in aquaculture is minor relative to other agricultural enterprises.

32. How are farmed and wild shellfish different?
Farmed and wild shellfish have the same ancestors. There is very little difference between wild and cultured shellfish, as shellfish seed were originally harvested – and are still harvested – from the wild. On the west coast, the species of oyster that is the basis of both the wild and farmed oyster industries is an introduced species from Japan that was brought to the West Coast around 1913. The native oyster of the northwest coast is now rarely found. Both wild and farmed shellfish are filter feeders that consume phytoplankton already in the ocean.

33. How is aquaculture regulated in our region?
The Canadian aquaculture industry is governed by a framework of 73 pieces of federal and provincial legislation. The location and day-to-day operations of all Canadian aquaculture facilities are regulated by six federal agencies: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environment Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, Transport Canada, and Health Canada.

34. Do you know another growing problem is seafood fraud and mislabeling. This is in part due to poor tractability of imported products. How does the tractability of domestic farm raised seafood compare to imported seafood?
It is more challenging to trace the origin and quality of imported seafood. We import most of our seafood (close to 90%), and it’s a huge volume to track and trace-that’s just a fact of life. With domestic product you know exactly. What you’re getting, where it came from, and that it was raised according to strict standards to make sure the product is safe and healthy.

35. What type of health and nutritional benefits are associated with shellfish consumption?
Shellfish are healthy sources of protein, rich in vitamins and minerals, and low in fat. They are also a good source of omega-3 fatty acids.

36. Suppose A lot of consumers are against aquaculture because they perceive wild caught as higher quality and safer since they believe fish are farmed in polluted conditions.. What would you say to those people about the quality and safety of farm raised products?
Many consumers’ primary concerns have to do with pollutants such as mercury and PCBs. Unfortunately, these contaminants are in the environment and they find their way into our food supply-in wild and farmed fish and in poultry, beef, pork, and all the rest. In fish, high levels of these contaminants are associated with fish that eat high on the food chain and long lifespans. Aquaculture fish are the opposite: they don’t living very long because they are raised to be harvested, and many (including some carnivorous fish) can be on a plant-based diets which reduces the accumulation of contaminants. In any event, the health and medical communities have concluded that the risk of contaminant exposure via seafood-wild or farmed-is near negligible, but the risk of NOT consuming seafood and reaping the benefits of lean protein and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is substantial and deadly. Another misconception is that the aquaculture industry relies heavily on antibiotic drugs to boost performance. The truth is that there is no use of antibiotics or hormones for growth production in U.S. aquaculture, and the few drugs that are used to treat fish diseases are strictly regulated and only allowed when fish are sick and some sort of intervention is needed. As far as environmental impacts, it’s not in the best interest of the farmers to raise fish in poor conditions because it will affect their bottom line. Fish will not grow well in polluted conditions, and escapement represents a catastrophic economic loss. In other words, fish farmers do everything they can to make sure they raise their fish under the best conditions possible-happy fish are healthy fish, and healthy fish grow quickly and efficiently and make fish farms profitable.

37. What is your philosophy towards Aquaculture Farming?
The challenges in aquaculture. The job is not like ruitine because of the daily changes with the environment. This keeps me always on toes.

38. What is aquaculture farming?
The broad term aquaculture refers to the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of animals and plants in all types of water environments including ponds, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Aquaculture is used for producing seafood for human consumption; enhancing wild fish, shellfish, and plant stocks for harvest; restoring threatened and endangered aquatic species; rebuilding ecologically-important shellfish habitat; producing nutritional and industrial compounds; and providing fish for aquariums.

39. Why do we need fish farming in the first place?
Eating fish is good for your health, but there are not enough wild fish and shellfish to meet existing demand. Sustainable fishing goes hand-in-hand with fish farming. Only together can they produce enough fish to meet the demands of the growing global population without jeopardizing the long term future of our wild fish stocks.

In the EU we rely on imports for 68% of the seafood we eat. A significant proportion of which comes from fish farms. Only 10% of our consumption is farmed in the EU. Bringing more farmed fish to our plates means less pressure on wild fish stocks, less reliance on imports, and more jobs and growth in our local economies.

40. What are the stages of shellfish farming?
There are five stages:

  1. Seed – The farming process begins with the collection of seed stock from existing wild stocks or from hatchery sources.
  2. Nursery – Nursery rearing of shellfish begins once the seeds have set and lasts until the juvenile shellfish are ready to be transferred to the grow-out site. Nursery rearing systems are intertidal, suspended in deep water, or built on land or floating rafts with seawater flow-through.
  3. Growout – Once seeds are at the right size, they are removed from the nursery sites, and put into socks, tubes, trays, lantern nets, or set on long lines, in bags, on tables, on the sea floor or the beach.
  4. Grading and Sorting – To ensure the highest survival and growth rates, it is essential to periodically sort and grade the stock into appropriate sizes. This must be done for oysters, clams or scallops especially during the juvenile stages.
  5. Harvest – It takes anywhere from 1½ to four years for shellfish to reach harvest size. Harvesting techniques range from hand harvesting to crew-operated harvest machines, and each species of shellfish requires different farming techniques.

41. Suppose we need technical assistance and other information about Aquaculture in Massachusett?
There are a number of technical and information resources available in Massachusetts and abroad. Massachusetts is fortunate to have three regional state aquaculture centers located in southeastern northeastern and western Massachusetts. In addition to staff expertise at each of the centers, the centers also house a great deal of aquaculture information.

42. Why are you the best aquaculture farm manager for us?
My experience will benefit the company.

43. Is fish farming a profitable business?
Yes, fish farming is very profitable

44. Tell me do we need a permit to establish an aquaculture operation in Massachusetts?
In order to protect natural resources of the Commonwealth from such problems as invasive species and water pollution, aquaculture is of necessity a highly regulated activity. Permits are required to import, hold, grow and transport fish. When large quantities of water are used or discharged, permits are also required.

45. Suppose sustainability has become a popular demand for consumers across the market for many food products. It also has economic implications for fishermen and their communities.. What is the role of aquaculture in sustainability and how does it impact the seafood industry?
Seafood sustainability is about making sure there is enough seafood for everyone, now and in the future. At this point aquaculture is necessary because many fisheries are already at their limits and there are no new fisheries being discovered. In order to have sustainable seafood we must minimize reliance on limited resources and the impact on the environment. Aquaculture puts food on the table for millions of people, often in regions where it’s needed most.. What’s more, aquaculture also helps to support wild fisheries by relieving some of the pressure on imperiled stocks (farm-raised hybrid striped bass helped wild Atlantic striped bass fisheries to recover by meeting demand) and public and private hatcheries stock millions and millions of fish and shellfish to replace those lost to harvest, habitat degradation, etc. It’s not a question of farm-raised OR wild-caught, we should eat farm-raised AND wild-caught fish and shellfish.

46. Suppose we have some land and we want to grow fish where do we start?
Aquaculture is farming. Two principles especially apply: 1. Both are hard work; 2. Both are driven by the MARKET. You should establish your market before you grow your fish.

47. What kinds of species are grown domestically and at. What volumes?
Catfish is the number one species grown in America, volume -wise. The number two species by volume is rainbow trout, which happens to be number one in terms of value. Other species grown here are: Hybrid Striped Bass, Tilapia, Atlantic Salmon and Barramundi, and there are quite a few shrimp and molluscs raised in U.S. waters as well.

48. What is the cost of the pond, cage or tank?
Cost of pond depends on area, land and type of pond you intend to have. By type of pond, I mean earthen, concrete or tarpaulin ponds.
Cages cost between USD 500 for a cage of 2,000 fish to USD1, 528 for one of 10,000 fish.
Ponds cost USD 1.4 per cubic meter.
Tanks cost USD 256 per 8 cubic meter tank.

49. How much will a permit cost me?
Aquaculture permit costs vary depending on the type of permit you are applying for. There are also annual fees attached to aquaculture permits. Aquaculture businesses are required to pay an annual permit administration fee. Aquaculture businesses operating on public waters such as Cage farming are required to pay the annual permit More information can be obtained by speaking to staff from the Aquaculture unit.

50. What are the different ways to grow shellfish?
Just as there are many species of shellfish, there are many types of shellfish culture: Tray, tube, bag and cage, raft, longline and intertidal.

51. How much will the 1000 small fishes cost?
Catfish have sizes: we have fingerlings, juveniles and post juveniles. We always advise potential farmers to go for juveniles since most of them don’t have facilities to handle fingerlings. Healthy juveniles cost USD0.08 in Uganda.

52. Where are the best places to put an aquaculture farm?

  • There are specific criteria that must be considered when investigating a potential site for aquaculture. These include water access, topography, climate, soil type, and proximity to markets, support and infrastructure.
  • The sustainable aquaculture strategies aim to promote community and industry confidence in the continued development of an environmentally and economically sustainable aquaculture industry.

53. Are fish oils associated with dioxins and PCBs?
A Canadian Food Inspection Agency study found that dioxin, furan and PCB levels in fish oil samples do not exceed the Canadian Guidelines for Chemical Contaminants and Toxins in Fish and Fish Products. Dioxins and Furans are measured in parts-per-trillion, while PCBs are measured in parts-per-billion. Levels in farmed fish are well below most wild fish and daily foodstuffs eaten by Canadians.

54. What is the Aquaculture in Massachusetts?
Aquaculture involves the manipulation of marine or freshwater organisms and/or their environment before eventual release, harvest, or capture; the controlled cultivation and harvest of aquatic animals and plants.
Marine aquaculture in the state is presently limited to the cultivation of shellfish (quahogs, oysters and scallops) for commercial, research, and propagation purposes. There are no coastal finfish farms in the state and only very limited work, primarily for research purposes, is dedicated to seaweed culture. Proposals for offshore fish farms and shellfish culture have just recently been proposed in the state and are undergoing permit review. The inland aquaculture industry is comprised primarily of a handful of highly technical recirculating facilities located mainly in the western part of the state (with one on Cape Cod). These facilities produce hybrid striped bass, tilapia, barramundi, trout and other finfish. Additionally, there are a number of small pond and flow-through facilities located throughout Massachusetts.

55. Do salmon farms affect the sea floor beneath farm sites?
Aquaculture has the lightest environmental effects of any form of large-scale food production. These effects are limited largely to the ocean floor in the immediate vicinity of salmon farms, are short-term, and fully reversible. Salmon waste and uneaten food on the ocean floor can cause temporary oxygen reduction and other chemical changes as they decompose. For this reason, salmon farms are situated in deep waters over sand and silt sea bottoms with low fauna diversity. Some of the organisms that live in these soft sediments in fact thrive under salmon farms because the wastes are a source of food for them.

56. Where does fish feed come from?
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, about 90 percent of global fishmeal production is from oily fish species such as anchovies, mackerel, pilchard, capelin and menhaden. These small, bony fish are generally unsuitable for human consumption. As an alternative to fishmeals, the aquaculture industry is increasingly using vegetable proteins and oils.

57. Which species of salmon are farmed?

  • Atlantic salmon
  • Pacific salmon
  • Coho salmon (also called silver salmon)
  • Chinook salmon (also known as spring or king salmon)
  • Rainbow trout
  • Arctic Char
  • Brook trout

58. What species of shellfish are farmed?
Mussels, oysters, clams and scallops are the most common species in Canadian aquaculture. We are investigating the farming of other species such as abalone, geoducks, quahogs and sea urchins

59. How long does it take to raise an animal?
This depends on the animal. For instance a salmon spends 1 ½ years in the hatchery and then 1 ½ – 2 ½ years in marine net pens. Oysters spend about 3 months in the hatchery then 7-8 months in juvenile culture systems, and a further 1 ½ – 2 ½ years growing to market size. Blue mussels can grow to market size in as little as 1 year and take up to 3 years depending on seed size, water temperatures and culture techniques. Marine worms take about 6 months to grow to market size.

60. What are you doing to keep current in technology?
Please share your experience.

61. What are pigments?
In nature, fish such as salmon get their pink colour from eating crustaceans.. Carotenoids, the most common naturally occurring pigments, are given to farmed fish to provide Vitamin A, function as antioxidants, and enhance the animals’ immune system. Carotenoids also give farmed fish, such as salmon and Arctic Char, their pink colour.

62. What was your biggest disappointment as an aquaculture farm manager?
Working with a very weak fish and the government not approving the improvement of the stock like introducing GIFT. Sometimes you practice the basic aquaculture and still get bad results.

63. Explain a situation where you had to make a quick decision?
Power survivals in ponds, fish dying after 15 days in ponds. I quickly changed the density and the procedure. This gave higher survivals.

64. What feed is given to farmed salmon?
Strict raw material criteria are used to ensure a high quality feed. All of the ingredients used in both moist and dry aquaculture feed are approved for use by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Much of the protein used in fish feed comes from small, bony fish – such as anchovies and mackerel – which are unsuitable for human consumption. Other sources of protein include soybean meal, corn gluten meal, canola meal and wheat gluten and poultry by-products. Essential vitamins, minerals and carotenoids – which provide salmon with vitamin A and give salmon their pink colour – are added to the diet. All feed ingredients are of natural origin and of the highest quality.

65. Do we need an aquaculture permit to breed aquarium/ornamental fish?
If you intend to breed and sell any aquarium/ornamental fish and your facility has a water holding capacity of 10,000 litres or more you will require an aquaculture permit.

Once I have an aquaculture permit, where can I sell my product?
Holding an aquaculture permit allows you to sell your product direct to retailers, the public or other markets eg restaurants and clubs, or through fish markets. .More information on available markets can be obtained by speaking to the various aquaculture associations.

66. Is farmed salmon a healthy nutritional choice?
Both farmed and wild salmon are high in vitamins A and D and carotenoids, which are thought to help prevent cancer. Salmon is low in saturated fat, and contains 20 percent more protein than hamburger, steak and pork loin. Salmon is also an excellent source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

67. Why should we hire you as Aquaculture Farm Manager?
I have proven experience in fish farming management and human resources management. My experience and achievements can impact the company positively.

68. What species of fish are important to the Aquaculture industry in Massachusetts?
Species grown in Massachusetts include Atlantic salmon, barramundi, bluegill, rainbow trout, brook trout, brown trout, brown bullhead, golden shiner, hybrid striped bass, koi, largemouth bass, rainbow trout, and tilapia. These species run the gamut from those native to the Commonwealth such as brook trout and Atlantic salmon to truly exotics such as the African tilapia and Australian barramundi. The reasons for culturing these species are as varied as the fish themselves: from recreational fishing to food to restoration efforts.

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