**Psychological Statistics Multiple Choice Questions**

**1. Which of the following are function(s) of inferential statistics?**

A. estimation

B. testing of hypothesis

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. both (a) and (b)

**2. Which of the following is true about inferential statistics?**

A. help in getting an idea about sample value from population value.

B. help in getting an idea about population value from sample value.

C. help in getting data from sample.

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. help in getting an idea about population value from sample value.

**3. Parameter in inferential statistics refers to _______**

A. sample value

B. data

C. population value

D. variable name

**Answer: **C. population value

**4. A statistic in inferential statistics is related to which of the following?**

A. sample

B. population

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **A. sample

**5. Estimation is the process of ______**

A. formulating some hypothesis about the population

B. inferring statistic from parameter

C. testing some hypothesis about the population

D. inferring parameter from statistic

**Answer: **D. inferring parameter from statistic

**6. Which one of the following statements is true about hypothesis?**

A. it is an assumption about population value

B. there are different types of hypothesis

C. hypothesis testing is a function of inferential statistics

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

**7. Which of the following is a null hypothesis?**

A. there is significant relationship between the variable x and y.

B. there is no gender difference in the mean scores of mechanical aptitude.

C. there is significant effect of intelligence on achievement.

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. there is no gender difference in the mean scores of mechanical aptitude.

**8. The opposite of null hypothesis is known as _______**

A. directional hypothesis

B. statistical hypothesis

C. alternate hypothesis

D. composite hypothesis

**Answer: **C. alternate hypothesis

**9. Which of the following is an alternate hypothesis?**

A. there is significant gender difference in the mean scores of mechanical aptitude.

B. there is no significant relationship between achievement and previous knowledge.

C. there is no significant effect of intelligence on creativity.

D. none of these

**Answer: **A. there is significant gender difference in the mean scores of mechanical aptitude.

**10. Some statement or assertion above a population is known as _____**

A. unique statement

B. a standard statement

C. standard hypothesis

D. a statistical hypothesis

**Answer: **D. a statistical hypothesis

**11. A hypothesis in which there is no indication of direction of change or relation is called a ________**

A. directional hypothesis

B. non directional hypothesis

C. alternate hypothesis

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. non directional hypothesis

**12. Tests used to test non directional hypothesis are**

A. one tailed tests

B. two-tailed tests

C. three tailed tests

D. four tailed tests

**Answer: **B. two-tailed tests

**13. For testing H0: 1=2 against H0:12 we have the ______**

A. one tailed test

B. two-tailed test

C. three tailed test

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. two-tailed test

**14. The alternate hypothesis for the null hypothesis H0: 1 < 2 is______ A. h1: 1>2**

B. h1: 1 = 2

C. h1: 1<2 D. h1: 1> 2

**Answer: **A. h1: 1>2

**15. For testing which of the following hypothesis two-tailed test is used?**

A. h0 : 1< 2 against h1: 1> 2

B. h0: 1> 2 against h1: 1< 2

C. h0: 1= 2 against h1: 1 2

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. h0: 1= 2 against h1: 1 2

**16. For testing which of the following hypothesis one tailed test is used?**

A. non directional hypothesis

B. directional hypothesis

C. alternate hypothesis

D. composite hypothesis

**Answer: **B. directional hypothesis

**17. For testing which of the following hypothesis one tailed test is used?**

A. there is no significant gender difference in the mean scores of anxiety.

B. there is significant relationship between variables x and y.

C. experimental group has a higher mean y score than the control group after the treatment.

D. there is no significant difference in mean y scores of control and experimental groups after the treatment.

**Answer: **C. experimental group has a higher mean y score than the control group after the treatment.

**18. Statistical tests are designed to test the ______**

A. alternate hypothesis

B. statistical hypothesis

C. composite hypothesis

D. null hypothesis

**Answer: **D. null hypothesis

**19. Which of the following hypothesis are accepted or rejected?**

A. alternate hypothesis

B. statistical hypothesis

C. composite hypothesis

D. null hypothesis

**Answer: **A. alternate hypothesis

**20. Hypothesis testing deals with ______**

A. prediction of population values based on sample values

B. prediction of sample values based on population values

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **A. prediction of population values based on sample values

**21. Which of the following is type I error?**

A. the error of accepting h0 when h0 is true.

B. the error of rejecting h0 when h0 is false

C. the error of rejecting h0 when h0 is true

D. the error of accepting h0 when h0 is false.

**Answer: **C. the error of rejecting h0 when h0 is true

**22. Which of the following is type II errors?**

A. the error of accepting h0 when h0 is true

B. the error of rejecting h0 when h0 is false

C. the error of accepting h0 when h0 is false

D. the errors of rejecting h0 when h0 is true

**Answer: **C. the error of accepting h0 when h0 is false

**23. The probability of type I error is _____**

A. power of the test

B. statistical significance

C. level of significance

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. level of significance

**24. Sampling distributions are distributions formed by ________**

A. population values

B. sample values

C. parameters

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. sample values

**25. Sampling distribution of mean values is distribution formed by ______**

A. population mean values

B. sample correlation values

C. sample mean values

D. population correlation values

**Answer: **C. sample mean values

**26. Which of the following statements is true about sampling distributions?**

A. distributions formed by sample values

B. formed from a population distribution known or assumed.

C. a number of sampling distributions is possible from a population

D. all of the above.

**Answer: **D. all of the above.

**27. Which of the following is standard error?**

A. mean of sampling distribution

B. standard deviation of population distribution

C. mean of population distribution

D. standard deviation of sample distribution.

**Answer: **D. standard deviation of sample distribution.

**28. Which of the following are true about standard error?**

A. gives an idea about unreliability of the sample

B. gives an idea about confidence limits of parameter values

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. both (a) and (b)

**29. Which of the following is a statistically large sample?**

A. 29

B. 45

C. 16

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. 45

**30. The term statistical significance refers to ________**

A. how important the data are for research on the topic

B. the conclusion that there are no reasonable alternative explanation

C. the representativeness of the sample

D. the inference that the observed effects are unlikely to be due to chance.

**Answer: **D. the inference that the observed effects are unlikely to be due to chance.

31. If we take level of significance as 0.01 then the confidence limit will be

A. 1%

B. 0%

C. 99%

D. 100%

**Answer: **C. 99%

32. Critical ratio for large independent sample is given by the formula

A. z = standard deviation mean

B. z = standard error difference between means

C. z = se of the difference difference between means

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. z = se of the difference difference between means

33. The critical ratio is found to be 2.63 while testing H0: 1=2 against H1: 1 2. Thenwhich of the following statements is true?

A. h0 is accepted at 0.05 level

B. h0 is rejected at 0.05 level

C. h0 is accepted at 0.01 level

D. h0 is rejected at 0.01 level

**Answer: **D. h0 is rejected at 0.01 level

34. While dealing with small samples, preference is given to

A. estimating the population value

B. testing a given hypothesis

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. testing a given hypothesis

35. The critical region is the region of

A. rejection of h0 when h0 is false

B. acceptance of h0 when h0 is false

C. rejection of h0 when h0 is true

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. rejection of h0 when h0 is true

36. ‘Student’ was the pen name of

A. ramanujan

B. gosset

C. garrette

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. gosset

37. Under which of the following circumstances ‘t’ distribution is used?

A. sample size less than or equal to 30

B. population standard deviation is unknown

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. both (a) and (b)

38. Which of the following are the properties of ‘t’ distribution?

A. ranges from minus infinity to plus infinity

B. ‘t’ distribution does not vary with ‘n’

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **A. ranges from minus infinity to plus infinity

39. As sample size increases the ‘t’ distribution approaches a

A. binomial distribution

B. gamma distribution

C. poisson distribution

D. normal distribution

**Answer: **D. normal distribution

40. The degrees of freedom for which the tabled ‘t’ value is found for test of significanceof mean is given by

A. n

B. n – 2

C. n – 1

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. n – 1

41. The degrees of freedom for testing significance of difference between two means forsmall independent samples is

A. n1 + n2

B. n1 + n2 -1

C. n1 + n2 – 2

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. n1 + n2 – 2

42. If the samples are dependent, the difference between mean can be tested using theformula.

A. t = nsd

B. t = nsd

C. 2 nsd

D. nsd

**Answer: **A. t = nsd

43. Which of the following is the ‘t’ value for the following data (small independent samples)X1= 12, X2 =11, n1 =5, n2=7, s1 = 1.12, s2 = 2.31

A. 8.9

B. 0.35

C. 0.89

D. 0.79

**Answer: **C. 0.89

44. Normal distribution was defined specially by ——- a) Laplace b) Gauss c) DeMoivre d) None of these59.Which of the following is significance of normal distribution in statistical analysis?

A. many of the dependent variables are commonly assumed to be normally distributed

B. many of the statistical techniques in inferential statistics assumes normality of variable.

C. the theoretical distribution of the hypothetical set of sample means is approximately normal.

D. all of the above

**Answer: **A. many of the dependent variables are commonly assumed to be normally distributed

45. Which of the following is incorrect about normal distribution?

A. it is symmetrical with respect to the ordinate at mean.

B. mean, median and mode coincide

C. ordinate is minimum at the mean

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. ordinate is minimum at the mean

46. A normal curve shows 1. a distribution of mentally normal persons 2. population distributed equally in various parts3. greater percentage of cases distributed about the mean score 4. lesser percentage of cases belonging to extreme scores

A. only 1 and 2 are true

B. only 3 and 4 are true

C. all are true

D. all are false

**Answer: **B. only 3 and 4 are true

47. A mesokurtic distribution curve is a

A. normal probability curve

B. bell shaped curve

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. both (a) and (b)

48. A leptokurtic distribution shows

A. a bell shaped curve

B. skewness

C. steep rise in the middle

D. upto some extent it shows all of these

**Answer: **C. steep rise in the middle

49. Which of the following statement is true about normal curve?

A. the curve extends from - to +

B. good model for many naturally occurring distributions.

C. fifty percent of the scores are below the mean and fifty percent above it.

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

50. Which of the following is application of normal curve?

A. used to convert a raw score into standard score

B. useful in calculating percentile rank of scores

C. for normalizing a given frequency distribution

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

51. Which of the following is true about skewed distribution?

A. it is symmetrical

B. mean, median and mode coincide

C. similar to normal distribution

D. the more mean moves away from mode, larger skewness

**Answer: **D. the more mean moves away from mode, larger skewness

52. Which of the following statements is true about skewed distribution?

A. either positively skewed or negatively skewed.

B. in positively skewed distribution mean is maximum and mode is minimum.

C. in negatively skewed distribution mode is maximum and mean is minimum.

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

53. Which of the following statements is false?

A. in a positively skewed distribution there is excess tail on right hand side

B. in a negatively skewed distribution tail more extended in the left hand side.

C. in a skewed distribution median lies between mean and mode.

D. none of these

**Answer: **D. none of these

54. Which of the following statements is true about measures of skewness?

A. no limit for value in karl pearson’s method

B. value ranges from -1 to +1 in bowley’s method

C. value of zero indicates the curve is symmetrical

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

55. Which of the following statements is true about platykurtic curve as compared tonormal curve?

A. flatter

B. broader central position

C. lower tails

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

56. A distribution is leptokurtic if the calculated value of kurtosis in terms of percentile is ——-

A. equal to 0.263

B. less than 0.263

C. greater than 0.263

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. less than 0.263

57. A distribution is platykurtic if the calculated value of kurtosis in terms of percentile is ——-

A. equal to zero

B. less than 0.263

C. greater than 0.263

D. equal to 0.156

**Answer: **C. greater than 0.263

58. ANOVA test is based on ——

A. variance ratio

B. probability ratio

C. random sample

D. none of these

**Answer: **A. variance ratio

59. ANOVA is used when ——-

A. there are more than two groups

B. there is only two groups to be compared.

C. significant difference between two means is to be found

D. none of these

**Answer: **A. there are more than two groups

60. Which of the following test is used in ANOVA

A. t-test

B. z-test

C. f-test

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. f-test

61. In ANOVA, F-value is calculated using which of the following formula?

A. variancebetween groups variancewithin groups

B. variancewithin groups variancebetween groups

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. variancewithin groups variancebetween groups

62. The assumption basic to Analysis of Variance is

A. population distribution of the dependent variable follow normality

B. subgroups under study have same variability

C. groups drawn on certain criteria, randomly selected from the sub population.

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

63. Total sum of squares 2) Correction 3) Within sum of squares4) Between sum of squares

A. 1, 2, 3, 4

B. 3, 2, 4, 1

C. 4, 3, 2, 1

D. 2, 1, 4, 3

**Answer: **B. 3, 2, 4, 1

64. The mean sum of squares (MS) is

A. the sum of squares multiplied by its degrees of freedom

B. the sum of squares divided by its degrees of freedom

C. the sum of squares minus its degrees of freedom

D. the sum of squares plus its degrees of freedom

**Answer: **B. the sum of squares divided by its degrees of freedom

65. In ANOVA independent variables are called

A. categories

B. levels

C. factors

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. factors

66. In ANOVA different categories of an independent variable are called.

A. factors

B. levels

C. groups

D. blocks

**Answer: **B. levels

67. If there are more than one independent variables we use

A. one way anova

B. anova for factorial design

C. both (a) and (b)

D. none of these

**Answer: **B. anova for factorial design

68. In one way ANOVA how many F values are calculated

A. 2

B. 3

C. 1

D. 5

**Answer: **C. 1

69. If there are two independent variables then how many effects are found in ANOVA?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

**Answer: **C. 3

70. Which of the following statements are true about Two-way ANOVA with 2 x 3 design.

A. there are two independent variables

B. the first independent variable has two levels

C. the second independent variable has 3 levels

D. all of the above

**Answer: **D. all of the above

71. For testing the significance of difference between means, ANOVA analyses ——

A. means

B. standard deviations

C. correlations coefficients

D. variances

**Answer: **D. variances

72. In one way ANOVA, if the calculated F value is greater than the tabled value of F, then

A. mean difference between all pairs of groups will be significant

B. mean difference is not significant

C. mean difference between more than two groups in the set will be significant

D. mean difference between atleast two groups in the set will be significant

**Answer: **D. mean difference between atleast two groups in the set will be significant

73. Which of the following is true about ANOVA?

A. it is a non parametric test

B. homogeneity of variance is not a basic assumption

C. it is a parametric test

D. assumption of normality is not necessary

**Answer: **C. it is a parametric test

74. The calculated value of kurtosis in terms of percentile for a given data is found tobe 0.321, then the distribution is

A. mesokurtic

B. leptokurtic

C. platykurtic

D. none of these

**Answer: **C. platykurtic

75. The process of grouping the related data in to classes is called

A. Collection

B. Tabulation

C. Grouping

D. Classification

**Answer: **D. Classification

76. Non-measurable characteristics of data are called

A. Variables

B. Attributes

C. Features

D. None of these

**Answer: **B. Attributes

77. Measurable characteristics of data are called

A. Variables

B. Features

C. Attributes

D. Characteristics

**Answer: **A. Variables

78. If the upper limit of a class and lower limit of the next class in a classinterval are the same, it is a/an

A. Inclusive Class Interval

B. Exclusive Class Interval

C. Cumulative Class Interval

D. Statistical class interval

**Answer: **B. Exclusive Class Interval

79. Two-dimensional diagrams are also called

A. Pictograms

B. Area diagrams

C. Pie diagrams

D. Cartograms

**Answer: **B. Area diagrams

80. When the aggregate and their divisions are to be shown together, thediagram used is

A. Histogram

B. Bar diagram

C. Pie diagram

D. Square diagram

**Answer: **C. Pie diagram

81. Cumulative frequency curve is also called

A. Line graph

B. Frequency polygon

C. Ogive

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Ogive

82. Frequency polygon is called

A. Frequency curve

B. Line graph

C. Histogram

D. Ogive

**Answer: **B. Line graph

83. If the highest frequency of a frequency distribution occurs at the lowestvalues or highest values, the distribution is

A. Symmetrical

B. Normal curve

C. Skewed

D. Non-skewed

**Answer: **C. Skewed

84. Lack of symmetry is called

A. Kurtosis

B. Dispersion

C. Skewness

D. Either (a) or (b)

**Answer: **C. Skewness

85. The sum of squares of deviations of a set of numbers from their mean is theproperty of

A. Arithmetic mean

B. Geometric mean

C. Harmonic mean

D. Combined mean

**Answer: **A. Arithmetic mean

86. ______ is a positional average.

A. Mean

B. Median

C. Mode

D. MD

**Answer: **B. Median

87. Value of an item which occurs more frequently than others is

A. Average

B. Mean

C. Median

D. Mode

**Answer: **D. Mode

88. In a moderately asymmetrical distribution

A. Mean≠ median ≠ mode

B. Mean= median ≠ mode

C. Mean≠ median = mode

D. Mean= median = mode

**Answer: **A. Mean≠ median ≠ mode

89. Histograms are drawn for

A. Discrete series

B. Continuous series

C. Both (a) and (b)

D. Either (a) or (b)

**Answer: **B. Continuous series

90. Histogram is useful to locate graphically the value of

A. Arithmetic mean

B. Median

C. Mode

D. Geometric mean

**Answer: **C. Mode

91. The sum of squares of deviation is least when measured from

A. Zero

B. Mean

C. Median

D. Mode

**Answer: **B. Mean

92. Stsndard deviation is defined as

A. Mean of deviations taken from the value of mean

B. Mean of deviations taken from value of median

C. Square root of average of squares of deviations taken from the value of mean

D. Square root of average of squares of deviations taken from the value of median

**Answer: **C. Square root of average of squares of deviations taken from the value of mean

93. The value of median is diagrammatically calculated by drawing

A. Histogram

B. Ogive

C. Frequency polygon

D. Line graph

**Answer: **B. Ogive

94. In a positively skewed distribution

A. Mean > median > mode

B. Mean < median < mode C. Mean > median < mode

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Mean > median > mode

95. _____ is a relative measure of variation based on standard deviation.

A. Quartile deviation

B. Mean deviation

C. Coefficient of variation

D. Variance

**Answer: **C. Coefficient of variation

96. The value of an item which occupies the central position when the items arearranged in the ascending or descending order is

A. Mean

B. Mode

C. Median

D. Average

**Answer: **C. Median

97. In discrete series, items having ____ frequency is taken as mode.

A. Highest

B. Lowest

C. Medium

D. Average

**Answer: **A. Highest

98. Measure of variation of the items from some central value is referred to as

A. Deviation

B. Dispersion

C. Difference

D. Doth (a) and (c)

**Answer: **B. Dispersion

99. Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion?

A. Range

B. Quartile deviation

C. Median

D. Mean deviation

**Answer: **C. Median

100. _____ is the simplest possible measure of dispersion.

A. Mean deviation

B. Quartile deviation

C. Standard deviation

D. Range

**Answer: **D. Range

101. _____ is defined as half the distance between the third quartile and the firstquartile.

A. SD

B. QD

C. MD

D. range

**Answer: **B. QD

102. _____ is defined as the arithmetic mean of deviations of all items in a seriesfrom their average.

A. Quartile deviation

B. Mean deviation

C. Range

D. Standard deviation

**Answer: **B. Mean deviation

103. The standard deviation of the series 5, 8, 7, 11, 9, 10, 8, 2, 4, 6 is

A. 2.646

B. 2.466

C. 2.664

D. 2.7

**Answer: **A. 2.646

104. The mean deviation from mean for the values 25, 63, 85, 75, 62, 70, 83, 28,30, 12 is

A. 22.64

B. 23.64

C. 20.36

D. 20.64

**Answer: **B. 23.64

105. Standard deviation when expressed as percentage ratio to ____ we getcoefficient of variation.

A. Mean

B. Median

C. Coefficient of MD

D. Coefficient of SD

**Answer: **A. Mean

106. While finding deviation from average, the sign is ignored in

A. Standard deviation

B. Mean deviation

C. Quartile deviation

D. Coefficient of mean deviation

**Answer: **B. Mean deviation

107. Standard deviation for a set of equal value is

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

**Answer: **D. 0

108. If N=10, mean=12, ∑x2= 1530, the co-efficient of variation is

A. 20

B. 15

C. 25

D. 10

**Answer: **C. 25

109. In a symmetrical frequency distribution, the number of items above andbelow the mean would be

A. Same

B. Not the same

C. Equal to the mean

D. More or less same

**Answer: **A. Same

110. In a symmetrical distribution, mean, median and mode lie at the ____ of the distribution

A. Left

B. Right

C. Centre

D. Either (a) or (b)

**Answer: **C. Centre

111. For a frequency distribution, what will be the mean if median=132.8 and mode=141.3 ?

A. 128.55

B. 125.55

C. 120

D. 122

**Answer: **A. 128.55

112. The word Statistics is derived from ……………….

A. Latin word ‘Status’

B. Italian word ‘Statista’

C. German word ‘Statistik’

D. All of the above

**Answer: **D. All of the above

113. The word ‘Statistics’ refers to ………….

A. Numerical facts or data

B. A method of dealing with quantitative information

C. Both a and b

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Both a and b

114. Definitions of the word ‘Statistics’ can be classified into

A. Two

B. Three

C. Four

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Two

115. In singular sense ‘Statistics’ is considered as …………….

A. Statistical data

B. Statistical methods

C. Both a and b

D. None of these

**Answer: **B. Statistical methods

116. Which of the following is an example of statistical data?

A. Data of birth rate

B. Data of agricultural product

C. Data of school dropouts

D. All of the above

**Answer: **D. All of the above

117. “The science of collection, organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data”,is a definition of statistics in ………………. Sense.

A. singular

B. plural

C. classical

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. singular

118. The data collected by the investigator himself/herself is called

A. secondary data

B. Statistical data

C. Primary data

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Primary data

119. Arrange the stages of statistical investigation in correct order(i) presentation (ii) organization (iii) collection (iv) interpretation (v) Analysis

A. (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v)

B. (i), (iii), (ii), (v), (iv)

C. (i), (iii), (ii), (iv), (v)

D. (iii), (ii), (i), (v), (iv)

**Answer: **D. (iii), (ii), (i), (v), (iv)

120. Drawing conclusion from the data collected is called

A. Analysis

B. organization

C. Tabulation

D. Interpretation

**Answer: **D. Interpretation

121. Which of the following is application of Statistics in Psychology

A. Construction and Standardization of psychological tools

B. Conducting experiments or surveys and arriving at conclusions

C. Interpretation and proper use of results of research

D. All of the above

**Answer: **D. All of the above

122. Statistical methods help a researcher for which of the following?

A. Making the procedure definite and exact

B. Summarizing results

C. Drawing general conclusion

D. All of the above

**Answer: **D. All of the above

123. Which of the following is not a pre requisite for studying procedure for using statistical methods?

A. Being a scholar in Mathematics

B. Knowledge of nature of variables

C. Knowledge of types of measurement

D. Knowledge of theory of probability

**Answer: **A. Being a scholar in Mathematics

124. Which of the following is a reason for misuse of statistics?

A. Data can be manipulated

B. Figures are convincing

C. Figures can be used to mislead readers

D. All of the above

**Answer: **D. All of the above

125. The process of learning about the population on the basis of a sample drawn from it is known as

A. Experiment

B. Sampling

C. Learning process

D. Research

**Answer: **B. Sampling

126. In sampling what amongst the following is studied?

A. Only a part of the population

B. Every unit of the population

C. No unit of the population

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Only a part of the population

127. Which of the following is not an example of sampling?

A. Blood test

B. class test

C. urine test

D. Testing for the boiling of rice

**Answer: **B. class test

128. Which of the following is a merit of sampling?

A. Economical

B. Reliable results

C. Detailed Information

D. All of the above

**Answer: **D. All of the above

129. Which of the following is not a limitation of sampling?

A. Less accurate

B. Need experts in the field

C. Appropriate for large population

D. Misleading conclusions

**Answer: **C. Appropriate for large population

130. Which of the following is not the criteria to determine the appropriateness of sampling technique?

A. Where census is not feasible

B. where there is vast data

C. Where census is feasible

D. Homogeneity

**Answer: **C. Where census is feasible

131. Which of the following is not a type of probability sampling?

A. Simple random sampling

B. Systematic sampling

C. Quota sampling

D. Stratified sampling

**Answer: **C. Quota sampling

132. A sampling technique in which each every item of the population is given an equal chance of beingincluded in the sample is called

A. Systematic sampling

B. Stratified sampling

C. Simple random sampling

D. cluster sampling

**Answer: **C. Simple random sampling

133. Which of the following methods is used to select a random sample?

A. Lottery method

B. Tippett’s Table

C. Both a and b

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Both a and b

134. Which of the following is not an element of sampling?

A. Selection of the sample

B. Collection of information about the sample

C. Making an inference about the population

D. Making use of the inference

**Answer: **D. Making use of the inference

135. Which of the following is not a table of random numbers?

A. Tippett’s table

B. Fisher and Yate’s Numbers

C. Kendall and Babington Smitt numbers

D. None of these

**Answer: **D. None of these

136. Which of the following is a demerit of random sampling?

A. personal bias does not affect result

B. More accurate representation of population than non-probability sampling

C. A completely catalogued population is needed

D. Accuracy of estimation can be determined by the researcher

**Answer: **C. A completely catalogued population is needed

137. In which of the following methods the entire population is divided into a no. of groups?

A. Simple random sampling

B. Cluster sampling

C. Stratified sampling

D. Systematic sampling

**Answer: **C. Stratified sampling

138. A variation of simple random sampling is called ………….. sampling.

A. Cluster

B. Systematic

C. Starified

D. Two stage

**Answer: **B. Systematic

139. In which of the following methods one unit is selected randomly and additional units are selected atevenly spaced intervals?

A. Simple random

B. Cluster

C. Systematic

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Systematic

140. Which of the following is not a merit of systematic sampling?

A. Simple and convenient

B. Economical

C. Results generally satisfactory

D. None of these

**Answer: **D. None of these

141. Multi Stage Sampling is another name of ……………… Sampling.

A. Systematic Sampling

B. Random Sampling

C. Cluster Sampling

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Cluster Sampling

142. Which of the following Sampling methods is used in different stages?

A. Cluster

B. Simple random

C. Stratified

D. Systematic

**Answer: **A. Cluster

143. If the population is infinite or very large, which of the following sampling units is used.

A. Stratified

B. Systematic

C. Simple random

D. Cluster

**Answer: **D. Cluster

144. The sampling method which enables existing divisions and subdivisions of the population tobe used as units at various stages is ……………

A. Systematic sampling

B. Simple random sampling

C. Cluster sampling

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Cluster sampling

145. Which of the following is not a nonprobability sampling?

A. Judgement sampling

B. Quota sampling

C. Convenience sampling

D. Multistage sampling

**Answer: **D. Multistage sampling

146. In which of the following methods of sampling the choice of sample items dependsexclusively on the judgement of the investigator?

A. Purposive sampling

B. Quota sampling

C. Convenience sampling

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Purposive sampling

147. Which of the following is not a demerit of judgement sampling?

A. Not scientific

B. Influenced by personal bias

C. No objective method to determine sampling error

D. Can be used in making public policy decisions

**Answer: **D. Can be used in making public policy decisions

148. The investigator has complete freedom in choosing his sample according to his wishes anddesires in

A. Judgemt sampling

B. Quota sampling

C. Convenience sampling

D. Multiphase sampling

**Answer: **A. Judgemt sampling

149. A sampling method in which sample elements are selected neither by probability method norjudgement but by convenience is called ………………

A. Accidental sampling

B. Purposive sampling

C. Quota sampling

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Accidental sampling

150. The results of a sample survey would be subject to …………………..

A. Sampling error

B. Nonsampling errors

C. Both a and b

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Both a and b

151. The data obtained in an investigation by complete enumeration will be free from ……………

A. Sampling errors

B. Nonsampling errors

C. Both a and b

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Sampling errors

152. The first man to write a book on probability is

A. Galileo

B. Pierre De-Fermat

C. Demovire

D. Girolamo Cardano

**Answer: **D. Girolamo Cardano

153. An outcome of an experiment is called

A. Event

B. Sample space

C. Sample

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Event

154. The oldest and simplest approach to probability is ……………

A. Empirical

B. Classical

C. Subjective

D. Axiomatic

**Answer: **B. Classical

155. The probability of an event is defined as “the ratio of the number of ‘favourable’ cases to thetotal number of equally likely cases” in …………… approach.

A. Empirical

B. Classical

C. Subjective

D. Axiomatic

**Answer: **B. Classical

156. Which of the following is the definition of probability of an event in subjective approach.

A. Limit of the relative frequency as the number of observation increases indefinitely

B. Probability assigned to an event by an individual based on whatever evidence is possible.

C. Probability can be calculated using certain axioms

D. None of these

**Answer: **B. Probability assigned to an event by an individual based on whatever evidence is possible.

157. An event which may or may not occur while performing a certain random experiment isknown as

A. Sample space

B. Outcomes

C. Random event

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Random event

158. Those events which cannot happen simultaneously in a single trial are called ……….. events.

A. Equally likely

B. Mutually exclusive

C. Independent

D. Dependent

**Answer: **B. Mutually exclusive

159. If the outcome of one event does not affect and is not affected by the other event, then thetwo events are called ……….. events.

A. Equally likely

B. Independent

C. Dependent

D. Mutually exclusive

**Answer: **B. Independent

160. If the totality of events includes all the possible outcomes of a random experiment, then theevents are called …………….

A. Equally likely

B. Independent

C. Mutually exclusive

D. Exhaustive

**Answer: **D. Exhaustive

161. An event A is said to be the complementary event of B if A and B are

A. Mutually exclusive

B. Equally likely

C. Exhaustive

D. Both a and c

**Answer: **D. Both a and c

162. If two events A and B are independent then probability of A and B is given by

A. P(A and

B. = P(A) + P(B) b) P(A and B) = P(A) – P(B)

C. P(A and B) = P(A) X P(B)

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. P(A and B) = P(A) X P(B)

163. Conditional probability can be defined when A and B are ……………… events

A. Mutually exclusive

B. Dependent

C. Independent

D. Exhaustive

**Answer: **B. Dependent

164. greater percentage of cases distributed about the mean score4. lesser percentage of cases belonging to extreme scores

A. Only 1 and 2 are true

B. Only 3 and 4 are true

C. all are true

D. all are false

**Answer: **B. Only 3 and 4 are true

165. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

A. As probability of Type I error increases, probability of type II error also increases.

B. As the probability of Type I error decreases, the probability of type II error increases.

C. As the probability of Type II error decreases, the probability of Type I error increases.

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. As probability of Type I error increases, probability of type II error also increases.

166. Following data is related to emotional intelligence of two groups A and B.Mean SD N Group A 75 15 150 Group B 70 20 250 Then the critical ratio is given by

A. 2.53

B. 1.98

C. 2.84

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. 2.84

167. Which of the following is the ‘t’ value for the following data (small independentsamples)X1= 12, X2 =11, n1 =5, n2=7, s1 = 1.12, s2 = 2.31

A. 8.9

B. 0.35

C. 0.89

D. 0.79

**Answer: **C. 0.89

168. Degrees of freedom for testing the significance of correlation coefficient is calculatedusing the formula ——

A. n1 + n2

B. n-1

C. n -3

D. n-2

**Answer: **D. n-2

169. Normal distribution was originally investigated by ——-

A. Gauss

B. Laplace

C. DeMoivre

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. DeMoivre

170. Normal distribution was defined specially by ——-

A. Laplace

B. Gauss

C. DeMoivre

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. Laplace

171. Which of the following is significance of normal distribution in statistical analysis?

A. Many of the dependent variables are commonly assumed to be normally distributed

B. Many of the statistical techniques in inferential statistics assumes normality of variable.

C. The theoretical distribution of the hypothetical set of sample means is approximately normal.

D. All of the above

**Answer: **D. All of the above

172. The area under the normal curve between the ordinates x = – and x = + is

A. 68.26%

B. 95.44%

C. 34.13%

D. None of these

**Answer: **A. 68.26%

173. The area under the normal curve between the ordinatesx = – 2 and x = +2 is

A. 68.26%

B. 95.44%

C. 99%

D. None of these

**Answer: **B. 95.44%

174. The area under the normal curve between the ordinatesx = – 3 and x = +3 is

A. 68.26%

B. 95.44%

C. 99.73%

D. 90%

**Answer: **C. 99.73%

175. The term skewness refers to ——-

A. bulginess

B. lack of symmetry

C. symmetrical

D. normal

**Answer: **B. lack of symmetry

176. Measure of skewness gives ——-

A. Direction of skewness

B. Extent of skewness

C. Both (a) and (b)

D. None of these

**Answer: **C. Both (a) and (b)

177. In one way ANOVA, if the calculated F value is greater than the tabled value of F,then

A. Mean difference between all pairs of groups will be significant

B. Mean difference is not significant

C. Mean difference between more than two groups in the set will be significant

D. Mean difference between atleast two groups in the set will be significant

**Answer: **D. Mean difference between atleast two groups in the set will be significant

178. A line graph drawn from a histogram.

A. Ogive

B. Cumulative Frequency Graph

C. Frequency Polygon

D. Cumulative Percentage Frequency Graph

**Answer: **C. Frequency Polygon

179. Representation of data as portions of a circle of 3600.

A. Bar diagram

B. Pie diagram

C. Pictogram

D. None of the above

**Answer: **B. Pie diagram

180. The actual or exact lower limit of the class 40 – 45.

A. 39.5

B. 40.5

C. 39

D. 40

**Answer: **A. 39.5

181. Which among the following is NOT a measure of central tendency?

A. Mean

B. Standard Deviation

C. Mode

D. Median

**Answer: **B. Standard Deviation

182. The arithmetic mean of the distribution 10,20,12,8,6 is……………..

A. 56

B. 12

C. 28

D. 11.2

**Answer: **D. 11.2

183. The value that divides a series in to two halves above and below it is…………

A. Mean

B. Median

C. Mode

D. SD

**Answer: **B. Median

184. The number of median a distribution can have is………..

A. One

B. Two

C. Less than one

D. More than two

**Answer: **A. One

185. Ogive is also called ………….. graph.

A. Frequency

B. Cumulative Frequency Curve

C. Cumulative Percentage Frequency Curve

D. Frequency polygon

**Answer: **C. Cumulative Percentage Frequency Curve

186. Which among the following cannot be manipulated algebraically?

A. Mean

B. Median

C. Mode

D. Both b and c

**Answer: **D. Both b and c

187. Mode of the distribution 34, 48, 23, 45, 34, 54, 45, 56, 34, 76.

A. 45

B. 76

C. 34

D. 23

**Answer: **C. 34

188. The tendency of data to be scattered around the average is ……….

A. Central tendency

B. Dispersion

C. Range

D. None of the above

**Answer: **B. Dispersion

189. Find the odd one.

A. Range

B. SD

C. QD

D. Mean

**Answer: **D. Mean

190. Find range of the distribution 30, 42, 65, 26, 78, 54.

A. 52

B. 26

C. 54

D. 78

**Answer: **A. 52

191. The most stable measure of variability is …………..

A. Mean Deviation

B. Quartile Deviation

C. Standard Deviation

D. Range

**Answer: **C. Standard Deviation

192. The percentage of Standard Deviation to Mean of a distribution is called

A. Variation

B. Coefficient of Variation

C. Dispersion

D. None of the above

**Answer: **B. Coefficient of Variation

193. The median value of the distribution 30, 20, 42, 32, 12.

A. 42

B. 68

C. 32

D. 30

**Answer: **D. 30

194. The mean of a distribution is 50 and the standard deviation is 5. The coefficient ofvariation is …………..

A. 10%

B. 0.1%

C. 10

D. 0.1

**Answer: **A. 10%

195. The value of standard deviation will always be a …………..number.

A. Negative

B. Positive

C. Positive or negative

D. Both a and b

**Answer: **B. Positive

196. Which among the following represent mean?

A. Geometric

B. Harmonic

C. Quadratic

D. All the above

**Answer: **D. All the above

197. Which among the following is an index of variation?

A. Mean

B. Median

C. SD

D. Mode

**Answer: **C. SD

198. The mean of a distribution is 36 and median is 42. Compute mode.

A. 39

B. 198

C. 24

D. 54

**Answer: **D. 54

199. …………… is also called as semi- inter quartile range.

A. Mean deviation

B. Standard deviation

C. Quartile Deviation

D. Range

**Answer: **C. Quartile Deviation

200. The measure that has the maximum frequency is…………

A. Mean deviation

B. Mean

C. Median

D. Mode

**Answer: **D. Mode

201. Data regarding psychological traits will be in ………….form.

A. Continuous

B. Discrete

C. Both a and b

D. Either a or b

**Answer: **A. Continuous

202. The midpoint of the class 70-74 is …………..

A. 71.5

B. 72

C. 72.5

D. 71

**Answer: **B. 72

203. The method of organising data showing the number of times a score occur in givendistribution is……….

A. Rank order

B. Statistical table

C. Frequency distribution

D. None of the above

**Answer: **C. Frequency distribution

204. The representation of numerical data by using pictures in proportion to numbers.

A. Pie diagram

B. Pictogram

C. Line graph

D. None of the above

**Answer: **B. Pictogram

205. Data in fractions fall under the category

A. Continuous

B. Discrete

C. Both a and b

D. None of the above

**Answer: **A. Continuous

206. The computation of ……………does not require proper ordering of values inascending or descending order.

A. Median

B. Mode

C. Mean

D. Range

**Answer: **C. Mean

207. The quartile that represent median.

A. Q1

B. Q2

C. Q3

D. Q4

**Answer: **B. Q2