## Research Methods and Bio-statistics Multiple Choice Questions

1. The sum of absolute deviations about median is ___________.
A. the least
B. the greatest
C. zero
D. equal

2. Diagrams are for _________________
A. the use of exports.
B. better quantitative picture.
C. better mental appeal
D. the use of imports.

3. The best measure of central tendency is ______________.
A. arithmetic mean.
B. geometric mean.
C. harmonic mean.
D. mode.

4. First step of an investigation is _________ .
A. collection of data.
B. presentation of data.
C. analysis of data.
D. explanation of data.

5. Skewness is positive when mean is ___________.
A. greater than mode.
B. less than mode.
C. equal to mode.
D. negative.

6. When the value of r=+1, the correlation is ____________.
A. negative.
B. postitive.
C. perfect positive.
D. perfect negative.

7. When the value of r=-1, the correlation is _____________.
A. negative.
B. positive.
C. perfect positive.
D. perfect negative.

8. When the value of r=0, it is said to be ___________.
A. no correlation.
B. positive.
C. perfect positive.
D. perfect negative.

9. A grouped distribution can be represented by __________.
A. Frequency polygon.
B. Histogram.
C. Frequency curve.
D. Ogives.

10. The regression lines helps to find the __________
A. average of x and y.
B. average of x only.
C. average of y only.
D. the median of x and y

11. Subdivided bar diagram can be prepared on percentage basis _____________.
A. always.
B. never.
C. sometimes.
D. at a particular time.

12. Positively skewed distribution is ____________.
A. symmetrical
B. asymmetrical
C. both
D. none

13. In a positively skewed distribution mean>median is ____________.
A. lesser than mode
B. equal to mode
C. greater than mode
D. none

14. The straight line trend is represented by the equation ____________.
A. y=a+bx
B. y=mx
C. y=ax/ay
D. y=a*bx

15. Standard deviation is the _________ of variation.
A. least measure.
B. best measure.
C. average.
D. none of the above.

16. In discrete and continuous frequency distributions N= ___ .
A. the sum of frequency.
B. number of observations.
C. minimum value.
D. maximum value.

17. .Mid point is equal to _____________.
A. upper limit-lower limit.
B. upper limit+lower limit.
C. (Upper limit + lower limit)/2
D. (Upper limit + lower limit)/4

18. The value of median from the following data is ____________. 1100, 1150, 1080, 1120, 1200, 1160, 1400
A. 1100.
B. 1150.
C. 1400.
D. 1340.

19. The value of median from the following data is _____________. 391, 384, 591, 407, 672, 522, 777, 753,
2488, 1490.
A. 384
B. 591
C. 753
D. 522

20. The mode of the following series is __________. 3,5,8,5,4,5,9,3.
A. 3.
B. 5.
C. 4.
D. 0.

21. The standard deviation measures the absolute ___________.
A. dispersion.
B. average.
C. skewness.
D. kurtosis.

22. The standard deviation is extremely useful in judging the representativeness of the ___________ .
A. dispersion.
B. mean.
C. skewness.
D. kurtosis.

23. __________ is used to compare the variability of two or more than two series.
A. mean.
B. Standard deviation.
C. Coefficient of variation.
D. Mean deviation.

24. _________ analysis deals with the association between two or more variables.
A. correlation.
B. regression.
C. skewness.
D. kurtosis

25. __________ is an analysis of the co -variation between two or more variables.
A. dispersion.
B. average.
C. correlation
D. regression

26. The simplest device for ascertaining whether two variables are related is to prepare a dot chart is called __________ .
A. graphical method.
B. scatter diagram method.
C. method of least square.
D. concurrent deviation method.

27. The coefficient of correlation is said to be a measure of ___________ between two series.
A. covariance.
B. mean.
C. variance.
D. standard deviation.

28. The spearman rank correlation coefficient is a___________ measure of rank correlation.
A. parametric
B. non-parametric
C. linear
D. non-linear

29. The regression equation of x on y is expressed as ___________.
A. y=a+b.
B. y=ab.
C. y=a+bx.
D. y = a/bx.

30. The regression equation of y on x is expressed as ___________.
A. x=a+b.
B. x=ab.
C. x=a+by.
D. x = a/bx.

31. If two regression coefficients are 0.8 and 0.6 the value of the coefficient of correlation is __________
A. 0.917.
B. 0.899.
C. 0.789.
D. 0.693

32. The coefficient of correlation value ranges between ___________.
A. o & 1
B. -1 & 1
C. -1 & 0
D. none

33. A bag contains 10 black and 20 white balls, a ball is drawn at random. What is the probability that it is black?
A. 1/2
B. 1/3
C. 0.
D. 3.

34. Two events are said to be _________when both cannot happen simultaneously in a single trial.
A. Mutually exclusive events.
B. Exhaustive events.
C. Equally likely events.
D. Independent events.

35. Two events are said to be ________ when the outcome of one does not affect, and is not affected by the other.
A. Dependent.
B. Exhaustive events.
C. Equally likely events.
D. Independent.

36. _______ events are those in which the occurrence or non-occurrence of one event in any one trial affects the probability of other events in other trials.
A. Dependent.
B. Exhaustive events.
C. Equally likely events.
D. Independent.

37. Events are said to be ________ when one does not occur more often than the others.
A. Mutually exclusive events.
B. Exhaustive events.
C. Equally likely events.
D. Independent

38. Events are said to be _______when their totality includes all the possible outcomes of a random experiment.
A. Dependent.
B. Exhaustive events.
C. Equally likely events.
D. Independent.

39. Simultaneous occurrence of two events A and B is generally written as ______.
A. A / B.
B. A + B.
C. A – B.
D. AB.

40. The set S of all possible outcomes of given experiment is called the __________of the experiment.
A. Sample space.
B. Exhaustive events.
C. Total number of events.
D. Elementary events.

41. The addition theorem states that if two events A and B are mutually exclusive the probability of the occurrence of either A or B is the sum of the individual probability of A and B. Symbolically____.
A. P ( A or B ) = P(A) + P(B) .
B. P ( A or B ) = P(A) + P(B) – P(AB).
C. P ( A or B ) = P(A) – P(B).
D. P ( A or B ) = P(A)/ P(B).

42. One card is drawn from a standard pack of 52. What is the probability that it is either a king or queen?
A. 2/13 .
B. 1/13.
C. 3/13.
D. 4/13.

43. Probability of picking a card that is either a heart or a spade is _______.
A. 7/2 .
B. 5/2.
C. 1/2.
D. 3/2.

44. What is the probability of picking a card that is red or black?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 0.
D. 1/2.

45. A bag contains 8 white and 4 red balls. Five balls are drawn at random. What is the probability that 2 of them are red and 3 white?
A. 0.555 .
B. 0.424.
C. 0.765.
D. 0.987.

46. A bag contains 6 white, 4 red and 10 black balls. Two balls are drawn at random. What is the probability that they will be both black?
A. 0.432 .
B. 0.575.
C. 0.732.
D. 0.237.

47. A ___________ process is a process wherein an experiment is performed repeatedly.
A. Binomial..
B. Poisson.
C. Normal.
D. Bernoulli.

48. The mean of binomial distribution is________.
A. np.
B. npq.
C. np/q.
D. npq(q-p).

49. A coin is tossed six times. What is the probability of obtaining four or more heads?
A. 0.344.
B. 0.444.
C. 0.544.
D. 0.644.

50. A Poisson distribution is a _________probability distribution.
A. discrete
B. continuous.
C. Normal.
D. random.

51. A random sample is collected from the population and its statistics is ________ design.
A. Two-group.
B. One-group .
C. Matched-pair data analysis .
D. Multiple-group.

52. When the sample size n is less than 30 it is called ________ .
A. small sample test.
B. large sample test.
C. ANOVA.
D. none of these.

53. The hierarchy of subheadings in the research report are_____________.
A. Centred, underlined.
B. Centred, not underlined.
C. None of the above.
D. Both a and b.

54. Hyphen is a _____________ .
A. Small horizontal line.
B. Large horizontal line.
C. Dotted line.
D. Splitted line.

55. Print paper for the research report should be only on____ paper.
A. Mat .
B. Low quality glossy .
C. High quality glossy .
D. Filter .

56. The literature review is _____________ process.
A. Open.
B. Closed.
C. Discontinuous.
D. Continuous.

57. The shortlist of working bibliography is____________.
A. Pertinent.
B. Selected .
C. Annotated.
D. Permanent.

58. In references if the author is a woman it is usual to spell her ____.
A. Name
B. First name
C. Sur name
D. Name with initial

59. When the reference is quoted in a research report more than one author is given as et al which is ____.
A. Italic with full stop
B. Italic
C. Bold
D. Capital

60. Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the Binomial distribution?
A. All trials must be independent.
B. Each trial must be classified as a success or a failure.
C. The number of successes in the trials is counted.
D. The probability of success is equal to .5 in all trials.

61. ___________ is a statistical inference?
A. A decision, estimate, prediction, or generalization about the population based on information contained in a sample.
B. A statement made about a sample based on the measurements in that sample.
C. A set of data selected from a larger set of data.
D. A decision, estimate, prediction or generalization about sample based on information contained in a population.

62. Which of the following statements is false?
A. The t distribution is symmetric about zero.
B. The t distribution is more spread out than the standard normal distribution.
C. As the degrees of freedom get smaller, the t-distribution’s dispersion gets smaller.
D. The t distribution is mound-shaped.

63. 63.For statistical inference about the mean of a single population when the population standard deviation is unknown, the degrees for freedom for the t distribution is equal n-1 because we lose one degree of freedom by using the ___________ .
A. sample mean as an estimate of the population mean.
B. sample standard deviation as an estimate of the population standard deviation.
C. sample proportion as an estimate of the population proportion.
D. sample size as an estimate of the population size.

64. In testing the hypothesis, Null hypothesis = 200 Alternative hypothesis is less than 200 the sample mean is found to be 120. The null hypothesis is ________ .
A. should be rejected.
B. should not be rejected.
C. should be rejected only if n > 30 .
D. none of the above answers is correct.

65. Under which of the following circumstances is it impossible to construct a confidence interval for the population mean?
A. A non-normal population with a large sample and an unknown population variance.
B. A normal population with a large sample and a known population variance.
C. Non-normal population with a small sample and an unknown population variance.
D. A normal population with a small sample and an unknown population variance.

66. Which of the following is true about the t distribution?
A. Approaches the normal distribution as its degrees of freedom increase.
B. Assumes the population is normally distributed.
C. It is more spread out than the standard normal distribution.
D. All of the above statements are true.

67. Which of the following is not a necessary assumption underlying the use of the Analysis of Variance technique?
A. The samples are independent and randomly selected.
B. The populations are normally distributed.
C. The variances of the populations are the same.
D. The means of the populations are equal.

68. Which of the following is INCORRECT about the use of a paired experiment?
A. The object of pairing (or blocking) is to account for the effect of possible other factors (such as fertility of soils).
B. The analysis of paired data starts by finding the difference between the values of the pair. The order of the difference (as long as it is consistent) is unimportant.
C. It is crucial to recognize pairing. If pairing is not recognized, the results will not be as accurate and precise as possible.
D. Because pairing is beneficial, we can pair all data by matching the smallest value of each sample, the second smallest value of each sample, the third smallest value of each sample, etc.

69. The mean and variance of a poisson distribution is __________.
A. Î» and Î».
B. M and n.
C. P and q.
D. R and s.

70. The area under the normal curve for Z = 1.54 is _________ .
A. 0.4382.
B. 0.4999.
C. 0.5.
D. 0.2345.

71. The area to the left of Z = 1.96 is ____________ .
A. 0.8760.
B. 0.9786.
C. 0.9750
D. 0.9866.

72. A normal curve has x = 20 and Ã³ = 1 0 . The area between X1 = 15 and X2 =40 is ____ .
A. 2.0.
B. 3.0.
C. 4.0.
D. 5.0.

73. The hypothesis is true but our test rejects it. It is known as ___________ .
A. Type I error.
B. Type II error.
C. wrong decision.
D. None of the above.

74. The word statistics seems to have been derived from the latin word____.
A. statistik
B. status
C. statista
D. statistil

75. Statistics is most commonly used in ____________.
A. Maths.
B. Science.
C. Economics
D. Sociology.

76. Statistics is the ____________ of estimates and probabilities.
A. Science.
B. Economics.
C. Sociology.
D. Social science.

77. Statistics is essential for a ____________ .
A. city.
B. state.
C. country.
D. village.

78. Laws of ___________ science are perfect.
A. physical.
B. moral.
C. social.
D. economical.

79. Statistics is a _________ statement.
A. numerical.
B. quantitative.
C. qualitative.
D. none of the above.

80. Numerical data alone constitute ______________.
A. Mathematics.
B. Statistics.
C. Physics.
D. Chemistry

81. Statistics is widely used in _________.
A. collection.
B. education.
C. comparison.
D. none of the above.

82. Time series are also called ___________ .
A. qualitative
B. chronological.
C. quantitative
D. geographical.

83. ____________ classification is the universe classified.
A. manifold
B. qualitative.
C. qualitative.
D. spatial.

84. __________ is the method in which the upper limit of one class is the lower limit of the next class.
A. inclusive.
B. exclusive.
C. open-end class
D. none of the above.

85. The collected data in any statistical investigation are known as ____________.
A. raw data.
B. discrete series.
C. continuous series.
D. none of the above

86. ___________ determine median, quartiles, and percentiles.
A. frequency polygon.
B. histograms.
C. frequency curve.
D. ogives.

87. __________curve should begin and end at the base line.
A. ogives.
B. frequency.
C. histogram.
D. none of the above.

88. The data collected for the first time is called as __________ .
A. sources.
B. facts.
C. primary data
D. secondary data.

89. Mean, median and mode are known as ___________.
A. average of position.
B. mathematical average.
C. measures of central tendency.
D. measures of dispersion.

90. The most popular method of measuring the representative value is ________ .
A. arithmetic mean.
B. harmonic mean.
C. geometric mean.
D. median.

91. If the lower limit of the first class interval and upper limit of the last class interval are not known, it is called_____________.
A. closed-end classes.
B. open-end classes.
C. mid-end classes.
D. none of the above.

92. When the total number of observations are divided by the sum of reciprocals of the numbers it is known as _________ .
A. harmonic mean.
B. geometric mean.
C. arithmetic mean.
D. mean deviation.

93. The value of the group of data are arranged in an order either on an ascending or descending order to find ______________ .
A. mean.
B. median.
C. mode.
D. d.range.

94. The measure of the degree of scatter of data from the central value is _____________.
A. dispersion.
B. skewness.
C. averages.
D. correlation.

95. In standard deviation method, deviations should be taken only from_____.
A. harmonic mean.
B. arithmetic mean.
C. geometric mean.
D. median.

96. The relative measure of standard deviation is called _______________ .
A. variance.
B. arithmetic mean.
C. coefficient of variation.
D. none of the above.

97. Variance is the square of _____________ .
A. range.
B. quartile deviation.
C. mean deviation.
D. standard deviation.

98. Algebraic sum of deviations from mean is _____________.
A. positive.
B. negative.
C. zero.
D. linear.

99. Sum of squares of deviations is minimum when taken from ______________ .
A. mean.
B. median.
C. mode.
D. range.

100. Decraese in one variable influences the decrease in other variable is _________.
A. multiple correlation.
B. simple correlation.
C. negative correlation.
D. positive correlation.

101. When decrease in one variable increases the variables then it is __________ .
A. positive correlation.
B. negative correlation.
C. simple correlation.
D. multiple correlation.

102. If the ratio of change between two sets of variables is same, then it is called____________-.
A. linear correlation.
B. non-linear correlation.
C. negative correlation.
D. curve linear correlation.

103. Curve linear correlation is ________ .
A. linear correlation.
B. non-linear correlation.
C. simple correlation.
D. multiple correlation.

104. Perfect negative correlation is _________________ . .
A. r=+1.
B. r=-1
C. r=0.
D. none of the above.

105. Perfect positive correlation is _________________- .
A. r=+1.
B. r=-1.
C. r=0.
D. none of the above.

106. Absence of correlation is _______________ .
A. r=+1.
B. r=-1.
C. r=0.
D. none of the above.

107. Coefficient of determination is ____________ .
A. r^2.
B. r^3.
C. r.
D. none of the above.
108. Analysis which is used to find out an unknown variable from the known variable is _______.
A. kurtosis.
B. correlation.
C. skewness.
D. regression.

109. The known variable which is used to estimate an unknown variable is called ____________.
A. independent variable.
B. dependent variable.
C. regression.
D. correlation.

110. The unknown variable which is used to be predicted is called ________________.
A. explained variable.
B. explanatory variable.
C. independent variable.
D. dependent variable.

111. When the regression lines are expressed in algebraic terms it is known as ____________ .
A. regression equation.
B. regression analysis.
C. correlation.
D. none of the above.

112. Standard error of regression is also called as ___________ .
A. standard error of estimate.
B. standard error.
C. standard error of determination.
D. standard deviation.

113. Coefficient of regression of y on x is_____________.
A. bxy.
B. byx.
C. by+x.
D. none of the above.

114. Coefficient of regression of x on y is ______________.
A. byx.
B. bxy.
C. by+x.
D. none of the above.

115. The hypothesis is false but our test accepts it. It is known as __________
A. Type I error.
B. wrong decision.
C. Type II error.
D. None of the above.

116. The _______________ is used when sample size is 30 or less and the population standard deviation is unknown.
A. Normal distribution.
B. t – distribution.
C. F- distribution.
D. None of the above.

117. _____________ is to find out whether the two independent estimates of population variance differ significantly.
A. Normal distribution.
B. t- distribution.
C. F-distribution.
D. None of the above.

118. In one-way classification the data are classified according to ___________criterion.
A. only one.
B. two.
C. three.
D. None of the above.

119. The analysis of variance table is also called ___________ table.
A. logarithmic.
B. ANOVA.
C. F-table.
D. t – table.

120. In a two-way classification the data are classified according to ___________different criteria or factors. .
A. two.
B. one
C. three.
D. None of the above.

121. ____________ are suitable for research reading.
A. We should force our self to read fast
B. We should make a few stops or eye fixations in each line as possible
C. We should practice to keep on reading forward
D. All the above

122. A bibliography is an_____ list of all source material to which reference has been made.
A. Numbers
B. Alphabets
C. Notations
D. Bullets

123. ___ is to be included in imprint.
A. Place of publication.
B. Publishers.
C. Date of publication.
D. All the above.

124. ____ are essential information required for all references.
A. Author’s surname and initials.
B. The imprint.
C. Call number of the book or journal.
D. All the above.

125. Many journals require the use of ‘&” in the place of “and” in order to save _________.
A. Time.
B. Space.
C. Easy to understand.
D. To introduce symbols.

126. The__________should be placed at the end of the text:
A. Conclusion.
B. Reference.
C. Summary.
D. Materials and methods.

127. ___________ is required for web articles:
A. Name of the authors.
B. Year and title of the article.
C. Journal, Volume of the title.
D. All the above.

128. A full length research article generally consists of_______________.
A. A title.
B. Keywords and abstract.
C. Name of the author and address.
D. All the above.

129. Who proposed the basic research?
A. Charles Darwin and G.J.Mendel.
B. MC-Clintock.
C. MC-Carthy.
D. Griffith.

130. ____________ is a method to attain the goal of science.
A. Project.
B. Research.
C. Working.
D. Doing experiments.

131. _____ is the main objective of basic research.
A. Pure research.
B. Knowledge.
C. Collecting information.
D. Data interpretation.

132. ____ has practical application in research.
A. Analytical work.
B. Chemical work.
C. Physical work.
D. Applied work.

133. _____ includes surveys and fault finding enquiries of difficult fields.
A. Descriptive research.
B. Analytical research.
C. Applied research.
D. Fundamental research.

134. ____ research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problems facing a society.
A. Applied.
B. Industrial.
D. Descriptive.

135. ____ is based on the measurement of quantitative of quality or amount.
A. Qualitative research.
B. Quantitative research.
C. Attitude research.
D. Motivation research.

136. ____ is concerned with qualitative research
A. Qualitative research.
B. Attitude research .
C. Conceptual research.
D. Opinion research.

137. ____ research is related to some abstract ideas or theory.
A. Empirical.
B. Conceptual.
C. Simulation.
D. Orientation.

138. Research can be field setting research or____.
A. Historical.
B. Laboratory.
C. Oriented.
D. Empirical.

139. Research methods refer to the behavior and ____ used in selecting and construction research techniques.
A. Instruments.
B. Data collection.
C. Methodology.
D. Observation.

140. Deliberate sampling is also known as _____.
A. Convenience sampling.
B. Simple random sampling.
C. Purposive sampling.
D. Quota sampling.

141. Simple random sampling is also known as_____.
A. Probability sampling .
B. Quota sampling.
C. Convenience sampling.
D. Purposive sampling.

142. _____ sampling involves grouping the population and then selecting the groups.
A. Cluster.
B. Random.
C. Area.
D. Multi stage.

143. Qualities of good research are ____.
A. Systematic.
B. Logical.
C. Empirical and replicable.
D. All the above.

144. Many research in our country face the difficulty of adequate____.
A. Timely secretarial assistance.
B. Information gathering.
C. Data collection.
D. Working.

145. The research problem should define in a ___ manner.
A. Statement of the problem in general way.
B. Understanding the nature of the problem.
C. Surveying the available literature and developing ideas through discussion.
D. All the above

146. _____ is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data.
A. Research design.
B. Research methods.
C. Research analysis.
D. Operational research.

147. __________can be measured for a given sample design and size.
A. Sampling error.
B. Sampling size.
C. Sampling methods.
D. Sampling collection.

148. _________ scale is used to assigning number and symbols.
A. Nominal.
B. Ordinal.
C. Internal.
D. Ratio.

149. A research report helps to __________ .
A. Communicate the findings to a specific audience.
B. Known the scientist motivation.
C. Understand the meaning, interpretation and significance of the result.
D. All the above.