[Civics Notes] on Understanding laws of India Pdf for Exam

As India is a democratic country, the constitution of India has provided several rights to every citizen of India. Along with rights, certain laws were set and implemented by the legal justice of India. These laws may help society from individuals who are violating those rights. Law is an act or activity to control the misleading behaviour of human beings by taking advantage of rights.

These laws of India play a vital role. In the Indian law system, we have around 1248 laws. All these laws will make the law system of India more effective and extensive. The constitution of India was the longest, with 450 articles, 12 schedules, and 101 amendments. 

Meaning and History of Law in India

For Understanding the laws of India, one should need to understand the meaning and history of law in India. The meaning of the law can be defined in several ways by different educationalists. In simple words, the law is a set of rules or a system of regulation to control the behaviour of an individual who is discriminating against the rules set by the government of India. 

The laws in India have a great history. From 3000BC, we can find the roots of how to set or create law. An Ancient Egyptian law can be taken as an instance. It is divided into 12 books to explain the formula for law, which aims to find justice, behavioural aspects, Harmony, and morality. From then to the present, we have several instances like goddess Mart, King Hammurabi, etc.

How Many Laws are there in India?

By observing the classification of law in India, We have 4 types of law in India.

Even though we help various kinds of laws in India, the legislative system of India has simplified and categorized all the laws in India into four major types. Let’s have a glance at the types of law in India.

What are the 4 Types of Laws?

The four major types of laws are statutory law, criminal law, civil law, common law. All these laws were explained in detail along with examples as follows- 

Statutory law:- the other name of statutory law is legislative law. This law has been created by the legislative body concerning state or municipal corporations. These laws are completely different from administrator laws. This law will be in a written format, and the desire, motto of the legislative system of India can be written in a document and sent to the respective authorities. If it doesn’t work under the judicial department of India. The government executes power to the respective departments and allows them to break these laws into multiple types based on the issue occurring. For example, the statutory law can be reframed by fixing the penalties on traffic rules and frame it as traffic law.

Criminal law:- The name itself explains that this law is completely dealt with by the police department. This law is framed to reduce the crime rate in society. Certain crimes like robbery, murder, kidnap, rape, etc. will be taken action, and giving punishments were done by using the criminal law. It is stated by the Indian penal code, the Indian evidence act, code of criminal procedure. Criminal law Majorly works for the public service, not for private investigations. For example, if a vehicle has been stolen by a thief, the remaining vehicle owners will get worried and give a complaint. So this complaint will be taken as a view of the majority of the public.

Common-Law:- the common law can be treated as a leftover of the British government, East India company. The other names of common law are case law, judicial president. This law is stated by the central government of India with the concern of the country. This law is applicable throughout the nation with uniformity and the fundamental rights of the citizens. The common law can be reframed, broken into multiple laws and has several amendments, etc. This is widely experienced in the UK. The common law is in contrast to the statutory laws.

Civil law:- Civil law is regulated by civil procedure court. It is the simplification of criminal law in certain civil cases like- family issues, property-related issues, religious matters, etc. Based on the offence, civil law is further divided into different types of law. They are – 

  • Contract law

  • Family law

  • Property law

  • Law of torts etc.


Hence, the law is a system of action to be taken when an offence is occurred by violating the rights provided to the citizens of India. We got clarity on 4 types of laws and examples in our country. Besides these four types of laws, we have some other different laws like Indian law, etc. These laws were kept on updating based on the offences occurring. 

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