Construction & Building Materials online test on “Foundations Based on Different Conditions”.
1. If the foundation of the structure is to be divided into two or more independent units, the _______ may be provided to take care of unequal settlement.
a) Slip joints
b) Strap joints
c) Base plate
Clarification: Slip joints are situated on the boundary of the independent units and they help in localising the effect of unequal settlement in affected portion of the structure only.
2. Which type of foundation should be adopted in a clayey or lose type of soil which considerably swells and shrinks by variation in the moisture content.
a) Raft foundation
b) Inverted arch foundation
c) Cantilever foundation
d) Grillage foundation
Clarification: In the case of clay or loose type of soil, Raft foundation is very helpful in increasing the bearing power of soil which becomes very useful when load coming on the soil is practically uniform.
3. Which types of foundation should be adopted when the ground is sloping and it is economical to provide Foundation at the same level.
a) Simple foundation
b) Pad foundation
c) Stepped foundation
d) Pier foundation
Clarification: In such case, Stepped foundation is used to correct levels of the sloping ground on which the building is to be constructed and taken and a longitudinal section is prepared accordingly.
4. For heavy structures with uneven loading, the _______ should be adopted for the foundations.
a) RCC slab
Clarification: Pile foundations are most appropriate when the loading of the structure is uneven. Piles are driven deep into the ground up to the hard Strata which helps to distribute the load evenly.
5. The cavities or old Wells occur during excavation of the foundation trenches are filled with _________
a) Hard material
Clarification: To make the foundation safe, such cavities or wells are need to be filled to avoid uneven settlement in future. If the cavity is small, it is filled with concrete. But if the cavity is large enough to make the feeling of concrete expensive, a suitable arch should be provided.
6. In case of soft soil, a line is drawn from the edge of bottom of old footing at an angle of ___________ with the horizontal.
Clarification: The horizontal spacing between two footing in case of average soil is adjusted by keeping the angle of inclination is 45°. The horizontal spacing of to footing its adjusted in such a way that the edge of bottom of new footing is not intersected by this line.
7. ____________ indicates the dead load or weight of the machine for which Foundation is to be provided.
a) Static load
b) Kinetic load
c) Dead load
d) Live load
Clarification: The static load is constant for a particular machine and it plays minor role in the design of a machine Foundation. The foundation area should be sufficient to take up this load.
8. In case of kinetic load, it is desirable to provide ___________ at the top as well as and the bottom of the foundation block.
b) Extra beam
Clarification: Reinforcement is provided even though the design considerations do not demand such reinforcements. The amount of reinforcement will depend on the type of machine.
9.To minimise the transmission of __________ the machine Foundation should be isolated from the adjoining parts of the building.
a) Turning moment
Clarification: The foundations should be insulated from the vibrating machinery because it may cause settlements on sands and gravels. The various methods adopted for this purpose such as by filling in sand or saw dust between the foundation block and the side soil.
10. What do you understand from the given figure below?
a) Foundation on cavities
b) Spacing of footings
c) Foundation on black cotton soil
d) Foundation on an old well
Clarification: In case of old wells, all those materials should be removed from the well and the well, thus cleared, should be filled with hard material. Then suitable beams or arches should be provided to span the well.
11. What do you understand from the given figure below?
a) Foundation on an old well
b) Foundation on black cotton soil
c) Foundation of pier
d) Black cotton soil
Clarification: This method of constructing Foundation on the black cotton soil is adopted when the depth of soil is more and when there are no chances for water from the surface to penetrate through the soil for more than 1 m to 1.5 m.