300+ TOP FPGA Interview Questions and Answers [Latest]

FPGA Interview Questions for freshers experienced Pdf:-

1. What is FPGA ?

FPGA – Field Programmable Gate Array.

It is a device with programmable ‘logic blocks’ and programmable ‘interconnects’. Logic blocks contain LUTs and CLBs which used to implement mathematical or logical functions and interconnect join them to make large design. It uses external memory to store the interconnection information. This information can be changed and device can be reprogrammed by prototype designer.

2. Explain CLB’s and LUT’s of FPGA ?
Logic Blocks primarily contain programmable CLBs and LUTs.

  • CLB (Configurable Logic Block) – These are the main logic resource for implementing sequential as well as combinatorial circuits. A CLB elements contains a pair of ‘slices’. They don’t have direct connection to each other. Each slice has contain independent carry chain.
  • LUT (Look Up Table) – Each Slice contains four or six input look-up-table (LUT), storage elements, multiplexers and carry logic. These element are used to provide logic, arithmetic and ROM functions. Some slice contains additional functions like Distributed RAM and shifting data 32-bit.

3. Explain FPGA Prototyping ?

FPGA Prototyping
No one wants bugs in silicon when it goes to customer or user, it costs a huge amount of money for respin of all chips and hurts the company’s reputation in market. So if we can model a system and test it before silicon, then it will give us more confidence. This idea has introduce the concept of FPGA Prototyping into silicon design flow. So basically it is the process of Modeling RTL design in FPGA such that FPGA can emulate the desired system.

FPGA Prototyping is a new process and users may have various questions in their mind like,

  1. Why do we need it, when IP/SoC verification already exist ?
  2. Where we can use it ?
  3. What are the inputs required for it ?
  4. What is the flow for FPGA Prototyping ?
  5. What are its limitations ?

Actually above are the first few questions that came to my mind when I heard the term ‘FPGA Prototyping’ for first time, and believe me finding answers for all those type of questions are not difficult, you may need to google it from different sites. In this post I will be trying to answer all the queries which you need to know for FPGA Prototyping.

FPGA is acronym for Field Programmable Gate Array. We can program and use it like any logic circuit. Before knowing about FPGA architecture I assumed it as something having thousands of NAND or NOR gates and I can program it to make any logic circuit. My assumption was wrong in FPGA architectural part but correct in behavioral aspect, that we program it to make any logic circuit.

Coming back to the above questions I will try to answer them in detail, so that we can understand the basic of FPGA Prototyping

4. What is DRC and difference between DRC and LVS ?

  • DRC : Design Rule Check
    In ASIC there are some sets of rules which depends on technology used to design. Means some sets of parameters which decide where the mask should be placed, connected and routed in the layout. This check has responsibility of design to work after fab process.
    In FPGA, tool (like vivado) check the correctness of the design before synthesis, which is also said DRC check.
  • LVS : Layout Versus Schematic
    DRC ensure that layout conforms the rule required for faultless fabrication. But it is not guaranteed layout contain same circuit you desire to fab. Here the LVS check required. This process matches the netlist extracted from layout versus the original schematic or circuit.

5. What is stuck at ZERO Means ?
Some time in ASIC due to some fault any node will permanent tie to either ‘0’. This is called Stuck at ZERO error. Similarly stuck at ONE error. To check this error we need to provide some testability in RTL.
It generally not appears in FPGA prototyping, these are tested hardware which are programmed by bit file not fabricated so probability of error is less.

6. What is DFT and do it require in FPGA prototyping ?
DFT : Design for Testability.
Check the toggling of each flop in the design and eliminate the manufacturing error like stuck at ‘0’ or ‘1’, DFT process is used. Apart from the functional logic DFT logic are also added in design and patterns are generated so that we can test the manufacturing defects after it come from fab. Scan chain, MBIST and LBIST are the part of this test.

7. What are MBIST and LBIST in DFT ?
BIST : Built in Self Test.
Two most common method for DFT testing are Logic BIST ( LBIST ) and Memory BIST ( MBIST ).
LBIST is design for testing random logic, which use pseudo random pattern generator (PRPG) to generate input pattern and multiple input signature register (MISR) for obtaining the response of the device for there input pattern. An incorrect MISR output indicate the defect in the device.
MBIST is design for testing memory, which use various algorithm to test memory by writing, reading and comparing. MBIST check following faults in memories

  • Stuck-at Fault
  • Transition Fault
  • Coupling Fault
  • Neighborhood Pattern Sensitive Fault
  • Address Decoding Fault.

“March” Algorithm is most common algorithm used in industry.

8. What are the differences between FPGA and CPLD ?
FPGA : Field Programmable Gate Array.
CPLD : Complex Programmable Logic Device.
Function of both the devices are same but difference in

  • Capacity : Normally CPLD has less capacity than FPGA.
  • Image Storage : CPLD can bootup by itself but FPGA has large boot image and it fetches image from SRAM.
  • Features : CPLD only provide gates but FPGA also provides hard blocks like Block RAM, DSP, Microprocessor etc. which make FPGA more suitable for embedded systems.

9. What is DCM, Why the are used ?
DCM : Digital Clock Manager
DCM is an electronic component which uses the feedback path to maintain the clock signal despite normal variation in operating temperature and voltage. The output of DCM gives clock with minimum skew with high fanout, because it uses global buffer for high fanout.

10. What are differences between DLL and PLL ?

  1. DLL : Delay Lock Loop
  2. PLL : Phase Lock Loop

These are two technique to minimize the clock skew.

  • PLL use voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) whereas DLL use delay line.
  • PLLs are hybrid analog and digital whereas DLLs are all digital.
  • DLL have step errors but hybrid PLL does not have it.
  • DLL have less clock skew than PLL.

11. What are the different modes of programming the FPGA ?
There are many modes of programming the FPGA.

  1. SRAM via JTAG or programmable cable.
  2. Flash.
  3. USB and SD-Card.

12. What is constraint file and why we use it ?
Constraint file required for make design as per your requirements, like there is need to take out some signals to particular pins of FPGA eg. JTAG or define clocks as false path or multi-cycle path.

13. Name the FPGA manufacture companies ?
FPGA Companies

  • Xilinx (~50%)
  • Altera (~40%)
  • Lattice Semiconductor
  • Microsemi (Actel)
  • QuickLogic

14. What is the difference between ‘Hard Processor Core’ and ‘Soft Processor Core’ ?
Generally FPGA are categorized in following two ways in terms of design.

  • Hard Processor Core – Some part of FPGA has fixed blocks like processor core and some common standard IPs. Little space for other logic implementation.
  1. Capable of work on high speed due to better optimization.
  2. But have fixed configuration and can not be altered.
  • Soft Processor Core – Full FPGA can be used for logic. User need to implement soft processor core if required.
  1. Can be easily modified and have more logic.
  2. But limited in terms of speed of the fabric.

15. How you can know the maximum allowable operating frequency of your design ?
Maximum allowable frequency is limit by ‘Setup Violation’ in FPGA design. Timing report generated for the given clock frequency. If minimum ‘Slack’ between two flops is positive then we can decrease the time period by that amount or increase the frequency.

16. How you can increase the operating frequency of the design in FPGA ?
There are following ways which might use to increase the operating frequency of the design
Check timing critical path and optimized it.
Proper design constraint and timing constraint.
Pipeline structure.

17. What is minimum and maximum frequency of DCM in Spartan-3 and Virtex-5 series FPGA ?
Minimum and maximum frequency of DCM in

  • Spartan-3 : 24 MHz to 248 MHz
  • Virtex-5 : up to 550 Mhz

18. Can CLB configured as a RAM ?
In Xilinx CLB has two slices which is Slice-L and Slice-M. Function generators (LUTs) in Slice-M can be implemented as a synchronous RAM called distributed RAM. Multiple LUTs in Slice-M can be combined in various ways to store large amount of data.

20. What is Global Buffers, give some example ?
Global Buffer – Distribute the high fanout signals throughput.
In Xilinx FPGA there are many types of global buffers available like BUFG, BUFGMUX, BUFGCE etc. Different FPGA has limited global buffers and apart from tool user can explicitly use them also by using constraint file.

21. Is there is any way to use the design in FPGA which has ‘setup violation’ ?
Setup violation accrue if net delay between flops are greater than Time period of the clock. So if we can increase the time period of clock such that it is greater than or equal to net delay then we can use that same FPGA design. Increase the time period means decrease in frequency so by lowering the clock frequency can make design work.

22. Is there is any way to use the design in FPGA which has ‘hold violation’ ?
Hold violation accrue when path delay is less than the hold time of the flop. So by adding some path delay we can use the design. But that path delay should not exceed the time period of clock.

23. What is ‘contamination delay’ in sequential circuit and difference with propagation delay ?
Contamination Delay ( Tcd ) : Minimum time that the logic gate will change the output based on change in input.
Propagation Delay (Tpd) : Maximum time that the logic gate will change the output based on change in input.

24. Which are the different reports we need to look while FPGA prototyping ?
At different phase of FPGA prototyping following report are generated

  1. Synthesis report after synthesis.
  2. Place & Route and
  3. Timing report after Place and route or bit file generation.

25. Which primary information are need to look in above reports ?
Following main information need to look in synthesis report

  • Signals or registers which are optimized or prune.
  • Latches in the design.

Following information need to look in P&R and timing report

  • Setup and Hold Violation.
  • Are the clock constraints applied properly.
  • False path and multi cycle path.
  • Gate count.

26. What are different type of RAMs in FPGA and how we can use them ?
Xilinx FPGA provides two options for creating memories for storing data.

  • Distributed Memory : Array of register.
  • Block Memory : Dedicated memory.

When synthesis tool synthesize the RTL then it can use any memory depends on your coding. Before move on to coding style first see the difference between them.

  1. When it require to make small data memory, like small buffers or registers then use distributed memory.
  2. When it require to store large amount of data, like data message buffers or large lookup table then use block memory. This memory is limited and depends on FPGA series.

We should not use distributed memory for storing large amount of data because it use large number of logic cells/flops to make register and will take large number of registers to make memory.

//Let’s see the verilog code for configure block RAM
module B_RAM (clk, addr, we, data_in, data_out);
input clk, we ;
input [1:0] addr ;
input [15:0] data_in ;
output [15:0] data_out ;

reg [15:0] mem [3:0] ;
reg [15:0] data_r ;

assign data_out = data_r ;
always @ (posedge clk) begin
if (we) begin
mem [addr] <= data_in ;
data_r <= mem [addr] ;
NOTE : Initialization the RAM separately.

27. What is the difference between ‘reg’ and ‘wire’ ?
In HDL language ‘wire’ is which connects two nodes, it can not store data and used for designing combinational logic.
Whereas ‘reg’ can store the value and drive strength. It can use for modeling both combinational and sequential logic. Reg data type can be initial and always block.

28. What is different type of ‘timing verification’ ?
There are two type timing verification –
Dynamic timing
Static Timing

29. What does ‘timescale 1ns/1ps’ signifies ?
Timescale specify the time unit and precision of a module. It is written as
timescale time_unit_base / precision_base
From above example ‘timescale 1ns/1ps’, the base of time unit is in nanosecond and base of precision is in picosecond. Time unit is amount of time a delay #1 represents and precision is how many decimal points of precision to use relative to the time unit.

30. Different Debug tools used in FPGA design debugging ?
Each FPGA Tool manufacturing company will also make some tools for debugging like
Chipscope – Xilinx
Protolink – Synopsis
On-Chip Debugging – Altera

31. What is ‘Emulation’ and difference from ‘FPGA platform’ ?
Emulation word sound similar to simulation and work similar to that also. In simulation compiler break the code into nodes and calculate the value of each node at each clock edge. Emulation platform is actually group of processors which make can separate thread for each node. It work on synthesized design. Emulation platform is a hardware so we can connect debugger and other peripherals with it.
It is similar to FPGA but have following differences

  1. Capacity : Emulation Platform has very large capacity compare to FPGA. You can emulate full Soc in emulation platform.
  2. Speed : Emulation platform work on KHz to few MHz whereas FPGA work on 10 to 100 MHz. So FPGA are 100 times faster than Emulation.
  3. Debug : Emulation platform gives facility to take waveform dump at anytime at any trigger condition, but FPGA you need to add extra logic plus select the signal previously which we want to check.
  4. Force : In emulation we can force any value to any signal but in FPGA we can not do this.
  5. Timing : In FPGA we need to do Place and Route after synthesis but in Emulation platform we need not to do P&R.

32. What is the difference between ‘rtl simulation’ and ‘netlist simulation’ ?
In simulation compiler do and don’t do the following operation

  • Do the syntax check
  • Don’t optimize the code
  • Don’t synthesize the code means non-synthesizable construct can be use in simulation, eg. delay, initial, fork join etc.
  • Do break the code into nodes and calculate the value of each node for each clock edge. So as your design increases, number of nodes increases and hance take more time to run complete simulation. Also it dumps the waveform for each clock edge.
  • Don’t change the signal name.

In RTL simulation, tool compile the code and determine the nodes and dump the value of each nodes at each clock cycle. Whereas netlist generate after the synthesis in which RTL code is optimized and change into gate level. This increase the number of nodes and take more time in simulation compared to RTL simulation.

33. Which one of following is not synthesizable VHDL statement ?
‘wait until’
‘wait for’
”wait for” is non synthesizable.
Under process ‘wait until’ is synthesizable.

34. How do you implement DCM?
the manual of my spatran 3E fpga kit says Alternatively, use the FPGA’s Digital Clock Manager (DCM) to generate or synthesize other frequencies from the on-board 50 MHz oscillator.

35. Why is map-timing option used?
To improve design performance, timing, and packing for highly utilized designs.

36. What is LVs and why do we do that. What is the difference between LVS and DRC?
The layout must be drawn according to certain strict design rules. DRC helps in layout of the designs by checking if the layout is abide by those rules. After the layout is complete we extract the netlist. LVS compares the netlist extracted from the layout with the schematic to ensure that the layout is an identical match to the cell schematic.

37. Can you suggest some ways to increase clock frequency?

  • Check critical path and optimize it.
  • Add more timing constraints (over constrain).
  • Pipeline the architecture to the max possible extent keeping in mind latency req’s.

38. What is the significance of FPGAs in modern day electronics?

  1. Less time to Market when comparing with ASIC
  2. It’s better for start-up companies to design their projects using FPGA Rather than ASIC side
  3. Less Cost and Reconfigurable As many require number of times

39. What is slice? What is CLB?
The Configurable Logic Blocks (CLBs) constitute the main logic resource for implementing synchronous as well as combinatorial circuits. CLB are configurable logic blocks and can be configured to combo, ram or rom depending on coding style CLB consist of 4 slices and each slice consist of two 4-input LUT (look up table) F-LUT and G-LUT. The memory assignment is a clocked behavioural assignment, Reads from the memory are asynchronous, and all the address lines are shared by the read and write statements.

40. Can a CLB configured as ram?

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