# 250+ TOP MCQs on Amplitude Modulation and Modulation Index and Answers

Avionics Multiple Choice Questions on “Amplitude Modulation and Modulation Index”.

1. In Amplitude Modulation, the instantaneous values of the carrier amplitude changes in accordance with the amplitude and frequency variations of the modulating signal.
a) True
b) False

Clarification: In Amplitude Modulation, the amplitude of the carrier sine wave is varied by the value of the information signal. The instantaneous value of the carrier amplitude changes in accordance with the amplitude and frequency variations of the modulating signal. The carrier frequency remains constant during the modulation process, But its amplitude varies in accordance with the modulating signal.

2. What is the line connecting the positive and negative peaks of the carrier waveform called?
a) Peak line
b) Maximum amplitude ceiling
c) Modulation index
d) Envelope

Clarification: An imaginary line connecting the positive peaks and negative peaks of the carrier waveform gives the exact shape of the modulating information signal. This line is known as the envelope.

3. What is the reference line for the modulating signal?
a) Zero line
b) Carrier peak line
c) Modulated peak line
d) Un-modulated peak line

Clarification: The modulating signal uses the peak value of the carrier rather than zero as its reference point. The envelope varies above and below the peak carrier amplitude. The zero reference line of the modulating signal coincides with the peak value of the unmodulated carrier.

4. What happens when the amplitude of the modulating signal is greater than the amplitude of the carrier?
a) Decay
b) Distortion
c) Amplification
d) Attenuation

Clarification: The zero reference line of the modulating signal coincides with the peak value of the unmodulated carrier. Because of this, the relative amplitudes of the carrier and modulating signal are important. When the amplitude of the modulating signal is greater than the amplitude of the carrier, distortion will occur.

5. What is the effect of distortion?
a) Total information loss
b) Error information
c) Attenuated information
d) Amplified information

Clarification: Distortion occurs when the modulating signal amplitude is greater than the amplitude of the carrier, causing incorrect information to be transmitted. In amplitude modulation, it is particularly important that the peak value of the modulating signal be less than the peak value of the carrier.

6. What is the circuit used for producing AM called?
a) Modulator
b) Transmitter
d) Duplexer

Clarification: The circuit used for producing AM is called a modulator. It has two inputs, the carrier and the modulating signal, and the resulting output is the modulated signal. Amplitude modulators compute the product of the carrier and modulating signals.

7. The ratio between the modulating signal voltage and the carrier voltage is called?
a) Amplitude modulation
b) Modulation frequency
c) Modulation index
d) Ratio of modulation

Clarification: For undistorted modulation to occur, the voltage of modulating signal Vm must be less than the carrier voltage Vc. Therefore, the relationship between the amplitude of the modulating signal and the amplitude of the carrier signal is important. This relationship, known as the modulation index m, is the ratio m = VmVc.

8. What is the percentage of modulation if the modulating signal is of 7.5V and carrier is of 9V?
a) 100
b) 91
c) 83.33
d) 0

Clarification: modulation index m = VmVc = 7.59* 100 = 83.33.

9. When does over-modulation occur?
a) Modulating signal voltage < Carrier voltage
b) Modulating signal voltage > Carrier voltage
c) Modulating signal voltage = Carrier voltage
d) Modulating signal voltage =0

Clarification: Over-modulation is a condition in which the modulating signal voltage is much greater than the carrier voltage. The received signal will produce an output waveform in the shape of the envelope, whose negative peaks have been clipped off.

10. What is the condition for greatest output power at the transmitter without distortion?
a) Modulating signal voltage > Carrier voltage
b) Modulating signal voltage < Carrier voltage
c) Modulating signal voltage = Carrier voltage
d) Modulating signal voltage = 0

Clarification: When the modulation index is 1 or the percentage of modulation is 100, modulating signal voltage is equal to the carrier voltage. This results in the greatest output power at the transmitter and the greatest output voltage at the receiver, with no distortion.

11. What is the modulation index value if Vmax=5.9v and Vmin=1.2v?
a) 0.5
b) 0.662
c) 0.425
d) 0.14

12. Which of the following modulating signal voltage would cause over-modulation on a carrier voltage of 10v?
a) 9.5
b) 9.99
c) 10
d) 12