50 Urinary System Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

urinary system questions and answers pdf

1. Which of the following are not found in the glomerular filtrate?

A. Glucose
B. Protein
C. Uric acid
D. Creatinine

2. Which muscle metabolism waste product is eliminated by the kidneys?

A. Urea
B. Uric acid
C. Creatine
D. Creatinine

3. Which of these has the highest concentration in the urine?

A. Glucose
B. Sodium
C. Uric acid
D. Phosphate

4. Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium?

A. Chloride
B. Potassium
C. Calcium
D. Magnesium

5. The last part of a nephron is the _____.

A. Collecting Duct
B. Renal papilla
C. Distal convoluted tubule
D. Glomerulus

6. Which area actually secretes renin into the blood?

A. Macula densa
B. Juxtaglomerular apparatus
C. Juxtaglomerular cells
D. Cortical nephron

7. Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the nephron?

A. Efferent arteriole
B. Vasa recta
C. Peritubular capillary
D. Interlobular vein

8. Which blood vessels surround the loops of Henle?

A. Vasa recta
B. Peritubular capillaries
C. Interlobular arteries
D. Efferent arterioles

9. What is the average glomerular filtration rate?

A. 10 L per day
B. 180 L per day
C. 1,500 ml per day
D. 1 ml per minute

10. Which of the following is usually not found in the urine?

A. Magnesium
B. Urea
C. Uric acid
D. Glucose

Urinary System Mcqs

11. How much urine is formed in 24 hours?

A. 12 liters
B. 100 ml
C. 1.5 L
D. 3,000 cc

12. Renin acts on _____ to convert it to angiotensin I.

A. Angiotensin II
B. Angiotensinogen
D. Aldosterone

13. The targets of angiotensin II are blood vessels and _____.

A. Nerves
B. Adrenal cortex
C. Adrenal medulla
D. Kidney nephron

14. Tubular re-absorption occurs from the nephron tubules into the _____.

A. Loop of Henle
B. Peritubular capillaries
C. Renal corpuscle
D. Renal pyramid

15. Most tubular re-absorption occurs at the _____.

A. Loop of Henle
B. Distal convoluted tubule
C. Proximal convoluted tubule
D. Glomerulus

16. Where are most micro-villi found?

A. Loop of Henle
B. Distal convoluted tubule
C. Loop of Henle
D. Proximal convoluted tubule

17. Which of the following occurred by active transport?

A. Albumin in the urine
B. Creatinine in the urine
C. Re-absorption of water at the proximal tubule
D. Re-absorption of amino acids

18. Which of these does not operate under a renal threshold mechanism?

A. Creatinine
B. Ascorbic acid
C. Sodium
D. Citric acid

19. The action of aldosterone is to increase _____.

A. Sodium elimination
B. Sodium reabsorption
C. Potassium reabsorption
D. Chloride excretion

20. How much sodium is actively reabsorbed by the proximal segment of the nephron?

A. 10%
B. 1%
C. 70%
D. 99%

21. The outermost covering of the kidney is the _____.

A. Cortex
B. Medulla
C. Pelvis
D. Capsule

22. The kidneys are located in the _____ space.

A. Pelvic cavity
B. Peritoneal cavity
C. Abdominal
D. Retro-peritoneal

23. The entrance into the kidney is called the _____.

A. Sinus
B. Column
C. Hilum
D. Pyramid

24. Which structure is the first to collect the urine?

A. Pelvis
B. Calyx
C. Ureter
D. Urethra

25. Each minor calyx receives urine from the _____.

A. Renal papillae
B. Pelvis
C. Ureter
D. Columns

26. The renal pyramids are located within the _____.

A. Column
B. Cortex
C. Medulla
D. Pelvis

27. The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by _____.

A. Parallel blood vessels
B) Micro-tubules
C. Connective tissue
D. Nerve fibers

28. The kidney secretes ___ for the purpose of stimulating bone marrow activity.

A. Renin
B. Aldosterone
C. Erythropoietin
D. Somatomedin

29. The kidney secretes ___, which is an enzyme hormone that raises blood pressure.

A. Aldosterone
B. Renin
C. Angiotensinogen
D. Angiotensin II

30. Uric acid results from _____ metabolism.

A. Protein
B. Carbohydrate
C. Purine
D. Pyrimidine

31. Renal secretion of a compound usually occurs from the _____ into the distal convoluted tubule.

A. Loop of Henle
B. Glomerulus
C. Vasa recta
D) Peritubular capillaries

32. Which of these is not usually secreted by the kidneys?

A) Creatine
B. Creatinine
C. H +
D. Penicillin

33. The compound used to assess the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is _____.

A. Creatinine
B) Insulin
C. Para-aminohippuric acid
D. Creatine

34. Which of these could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids?

A. Urea
B. Uric acid
C. Glycine
D) Ketone

35. Vigorous exercise could release high amounts of _____ into the urine.

A. Glucose
B. Uric acid
C) Albumin
D. Ascorbic acid

36. What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder?

A. Gravity
B. Hydrostatic pressure
C) Peristalsis
D. Osmotic pressure

37. Renal calculi are usually comprised of the following except which one?

A. Calcium oxalate
B. Cholesterol
C. Uric acid
D. Magnesium phosphate

38. The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of _____.

A. Smooth muscle
B. Squamous epithelium
C) Transitional epithelium
D. Simple columnar epithelium

39. Which of these is under voluntary control?

A. Urethra
B. Detrusor muscle
C. Internal sphincter
D) External sphincter

40. The micturition reflex is centered in the _____.

A. Medulla
B) Sacral cord
C. Hypothalamus
D. Lumbar cord

41. What is the function of the renal system?

A. Maintain blood pH
B. Regulate blood pressure
C. Control blood concentration
D. All of these

42. How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys?

A. 10%
B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 65%

43. Which blood vessel delivers blood to the cortex?

A. Interlobular artery
B. Arcuate artery
C. Interlobar artery
D. Efferent arteriole

44. The renal corpuscle is comprised of a glomerulus and _____.

A. Proximal convoluted tubule
B. Bowman’s capsule
C. Loop of Henle
D. Distal convoluted tubule

45. Which section of the nephron is after the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?

A. Descending limb of the loop
B. Proximal convoluted tubule
C. Distal convoluted tubule
D. Collecting duct

46. The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the _____.

A. Proximal convoluted tubule
B. Loop of Henle
C. Distal convoluted tubule
D. Collecting ducts

47. The fluid in the descending limb of the loop of Henle is _____ relative to the capillaries.

A. Isotonic
B. Weakly hypotonic
C. Strongly hypotonic
D. Hypertonic

48. The function of the countercurrent multiplier is to _____.

A. Increase the concentration of NaCl
B. Decrease the concentration of NaCl
C. Change the blood levels of potassium
D. Conserve potassium

49. What effect does ADH have on urine output?

A. Minimal
B. Increases
C. Decreases
D. Maintains

50. Where does ADH have its greatest effect?

A. Loop of Henle
B. Proximal convoluted tubule
C. Distal convoluted tubule
D. Glomerulus

51. Eating large amounts of meat will increase the levels of _____ in the blood.

A. Protein
B. Creatinine
C. Urea
D. Uric acid

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