[PDF Notes] Complete information on National Movements in India

The years between 1892 and 1905 saw the gradual rise of Extremism and terrorism in Indian politics. This was due to many factors:

Dissatisfaction with the Indian councils act

Indian Councils Act of 1892 failed to satisfy the aspirations of the Indians. It did not give anything substantial to the Indians and even the moderates were not pleased with it. Many people felt that the policy of appeals and prayers had yielded nothing and the Government regarded this policy as a sign of weakness.

Mr. Rand with one of his juniors shot dead while returning from Bombay after the Jubilee celebrations. R.C. Dutt has pointed out, “In spite of a civiljZetj administration, Indian is still desolated by calamities such as are unknown in Europe.”

Ill-treatment of the Indians abroad

The Indians were not well-treated in other countries. The treatment meted out to them in South Africa was very bad. Restrictions were imposed on their free movement without any reason. They could not walk on footpaths or travel in first class railway compartments.

They could not travel without passes or go out after 9.00 in night. The Indians felt that the cause of such humiliation abroad was their slavery and India must become free to end this. In England too they were despised as slave. In short the Indians outside the country were denied even ordinary human rights.

Reactionary regime of lord curzon

The reactionary regime of Curzon also embittered the Indians. They were not given good jobs. He declared that Englishmen alone by birth and training were fit to rule India, and not the Indians. God had selected Englishmen to rule over India and to give them freedom was going against the will of God.

He passed many reactionary Acts. The Calcutta Corporation Act of 1899 reduced the number of elected members of Calcutta Corporation from 75 to 50. This reduction of 25 members were only in case of elected members. Thus the elected members lost majority in the Calcutta Corporation and non-elected members came to have majority. The Indian University Act of 1904 increased Government control over the Universities. In other words, it officialised the universities.

These were left with practically no autonomy. The Official Secrets Acts of 1889 and 1898 related to the disclosure of only military secrets. The Official Secrets Act of 1904 covered also the official secrets relating to information about civil affairs. All these reactionary measures irritated the Indians.

Partition of bengal

The partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon in 1904 was resented the most of Indians. The idea of Lord Curzon probably was to create a Muslim majority province, though he declared that Bengal was too big a province and the partition of Bengal had been done to increased administrative efficiency.

The Indians felt that it had been done to weaken the solidarity of Bengal because it was a politically advanced province. There was vigorous agitation for its repeal. It greatly strengthened revolutionary movement, particularly in Bengal.

Influence of the west

Extremism also drew its inspiration from the revolutionary doctrines of the west. The struggles for Independence waged by America, France, Italy and Germany had revealed to the Indian that freedom could be achieved not be constitutional agitations but by revolutionary methods.

The Indian leaders also remarked that, “History does not record any instance when an empted might have been conceded by the rulers to the ruled. You will have to fight f0r your right.” The Indians thus lost faith in legislation and constitutional means and they resorted to violence.

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