[PDF Notes] Get complete information on Heavy Engineering

All industries which require the following are termed as heavy engineering industries:

(а) Bulky raw materials.

(b) Huge capital investment.

(c) Large amount of power.

(d)Large transport cost.

(e)Employment of a large number of people. The Iron and Steel Industry is an important Heavy Engineering Industry. The others are the Shipbuilding Industry, Automobile Industry, Railway Equipment, Air Craft Industry, Heavy Machine Tools and Heavy Electrical Industry.

Railway Equipment is divided into locomotives, coaches and wagons.

1. Locomotives are manufactured in:

(a) Chittaranjan Locomotives in West Bengal. It obtains coal from Raniganj, iron ore from Durgapur and H.E.P. from Damodar Valley Corporation.

(b) Diesel Locomotive Works at Varanasi produces broad and metre gauge diesel locomotives.

(c) Tata Engineering and Locomotive Works (TELCO): It belongs to the private sector and started production of steam locomotives but has now stopped.

(d)BHEL manufactures electrical locomotives for the Indian Railways.

2. Coaches

(а) The Integrated Coach Factory near Chennai produces all types of air conditioned coaches, electric and diesel rail cars.

(b) Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala manufactures coaches and A.C. 3 Tier Coaches.

(c) The Bharat Moves at Bangalore.

3. Wagons

Most wagons are manufactured in West Bengal, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi.

Air Craft Industry

1. The Hindustan Aeronautical Limited is solely responsible for the manufacture of aircrafts. Different parts of the aircraft are made at different places due to security reasons.

2. The different units of the Aeronautical Limited are at:

(a) A three unit MIG complex at Nasik-frames of Aircraft are made.

(b) Hyderabad unit where electronic equipment is manufactured.

(c) Korapat Division-engines for MIG are manufactured.

3. Transport aircraft are manufactured at Kanpur. Shipbuilding Industry

1. Shipbuilding is a large and complicated industry which requires huge capital investment, harbours with large space, wood and iron.

2. The important centres for shipbuilding are Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata, Kochi and Mumbai. All these are in the public sector.

(а) Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam started as private sector but became a public sector enterprise.

(b) The Garden Reach at Kolkata is an important shipbuilding yard in India. It carries all types of marine repairs of all types of vessels.

(c) The Mazagaon Dock at Mumbai: It manufactures cruisers, cargo, passenger and navy ships.

(d) The Shipyard at Kochi: This was set up with Japanese collaboration and can accommodate very large ship for repairs.

Automobile Industry

1. India is the seventh largest producer of automobiles in the world.

2. Automobile Industry is becoming (a) market oriented, (b) it is located near ports for the export- import facilities, (c) proximity to places producing various parts like tyres, tubes, batteries etc. (d) It is located near the basic raw material.

3. Industry/Regions


(a) Hindustan Motors (Kolkata)

Ambassador Cars

(b) Ashok Leyland (Chennai etc)

Trucks, buses

(c) Mumbai, Delhi, Faridabad

Scooters (two wheelers and three wheelers.)

(d) Maruti Udhyog Ltd. (Gurgaon)

Maruti Cars

(e) Standard Motor Works (Chennai)

Standard cars

(f) Premier Automobiles (Mumbai)

Premier Padmini

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