[PDF Notes] Get Complete Information on Rakhigarhi

Rakhi Garhi is about to rewrite the 5,000 years old history of our civilisation. Recent excavations at Rakhi Garhi in Hissar district of Haryana may push the history of the civilisation back by over a thousand years. It could change the commonly held view about the Indus Valley civilization.

Archaeologists and historians are already excited about the findings from Rakhi Garhi-the largest Indus Valley site next only to Mohenjodaro. Senior archaeologists consider this to be no ordinary Harapan site and state that it is the most important of all the archaelogical and sites of India. The unearthed clues may yield answers to many questions that have remained unanswered so far. They also state that their findings have already started showing new civilisation contours.

Firstly, the areas of dimensions of the site are far wider than those assessed by archaeologists Raymond and Bridget Allchin and J.M. Kenyer. Its area is 224 hectares, the largest in the country and next only to that of Mohenjodaro. In terms of size, dimensions strategic location and unique significance of the settlement, Rakhi Garhi matches Harappa and Mohenjodaro at every level.

Three layers of Early, Mature and Late phases of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found at Rakhi Garhi. What has so far been found uncannily indicates that Rakhi Garhi settlement had witnessed all the three phases. The site has thick deposits of Hakra Ware (typical of settlements dating back before the early phases of Indus Valley) and also. Early and Mature Harappan artifacts.

The solid presence of the Hakra Ware culture raises the important question: “Did the Indus Civilisation come later than when it was recorded?” The Hakra and the early phases are separated by more than 500-600 years and the Hakra people are considered to be the earliest Indus inhabitants.

Although the Carbon-14 radioactive dating results are awaited, based on the thick layers of Hakra Ware of Rakhi Garhi, yet it has been opined that the site may date back to about 2500 BC to 3000 BC. This pushes the Indus Valley Civilisation history by a thousand years or more.

While this site came to be known in 1963, excavations at Rakhi Garhi started only in 1997. Had they been unearthed 70 years earlier, when Harappa and Mohenjodaro were uncovered, the story would have been different. Fossils indicate that the Harappan man reared cattle. These findings are startling.

Rakhi Garhi was located on the banks of the river Dhrishdwati, which was a tributary of the river Saraswati. Copper fishing hooks and woven nets found at the site confirm the river’s existence. It is believed that people living in this city traded with other people using this river for navigation purposes.

The site’s antiquities, drainage system and signs of a small-scale industry are in continuity with other Indus Valley sites. All this adds one more dimension to the whole debate on Indus Civilisation. Further, many scholars had started finding the predominance of Harappa and Mohenjodaro in history books as “dead boring.”

But many others stand against any revision of the currently held views. All this only adds to the enigma called Indus Civilisation, rich in facts, richer still in speculation. What stands out from the churning debate is the fact that much more perhaps still remains shrouded in the annals of history. The real and very important part played by Haryana in India’s history is yet to be fully understood.

Excavations have done so far reveal a well-planned city 1.92 metres wide road. Pits surrounded by walls have been found, which are thought to be sacrificial pits or areas for some religious ceremonies. They testify that fire was used extensively in their religious ceremonies.

There are brick-lined drains to handle sewage from the houses. Among other things that have been found, some include terracotta statues, weights, bronze artifacts, combs, needles and terracotta seals. A bronze vessel has been found, which is decorated with gold and silver. A gold foundry, with about 3,000 unpolished semi-precious stones, has also been found.

Many tools used for polishing these stones and a furnace were found at the site of foundry. A burial site has been found with 11 skeletons with their heads towards the north direction. Near the heads of these skeletons, utensils for everyday use were found.

The three female skeletons have shell bangles on their wrists. Closer to one female skeleton, a gold armlet has been found. In addition, semi-precious stones have been found lying near the head, proving that they were a part of some type of necklace.

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