[PDF Notes] Get complete information on The northern mountain wall of India

1. The Northern Mountain wall forms an arc from Pamir in the west to Assam and Arunachal Pradesh in the east. It is about 2500 kms from Indus to Brahmaputra.

2. The Karakoram Mountains originate from Pamir to Kashmir. Mt. Godwin Austin or K2 is the highest peak (8611 metres). The Siachin glacier lies in this range. Eastwards it countinues as the Kailash Range in Tibet. The Ladakh and Zanskar range lie parallel to the Karakoram Range.

3. The Hindu Kush Range is another important mountain range starting from Pamir and stretching in Afghanistan while Sulaiman and Kirthar are other important ranges stretching in Pakistan.

4. The important passes in these ranges are:

(а) Khyber Pass – Between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

(b) Gomal Pass – South of Khyber Pass.

(c) Bolan Pass – Lies between Sulaiman and Kirthar Ranges.

5. The Himalayan Range consists of three parallel ranges:

(а) The Himadri or Greater Himalayas over (6000 m).

(b) Lesser Himalayas (4500 m).

(c) Shiwalik Range (1000 m).

6. The Eastern Offshoots consists of Naga Hills, Mizo hills and west of these ranges are Garo, Khasi and Jaintia ranges.

7. The Eastern mountains have passes like the Bomdila and Nathula. Shipkila and Rohtang passes lie in the western Himalayas.

8. Other features of the Himalayas-Doons and Terai.

Doons-they are flat valleys that lie between the Himachal range and the Shiwalik range. Terai is the region south of the Bhabhar plains. The fine alluvium makes the land swampy. They are heavily forested and inhabited by animals.

Importance of the Great Mountain

9. (a) The high Himalayas are a great barrier to communication and transportation.

(b) These Himalayas prevent the cold winds from entering the country. It also prevents the rain bearing winds from leaving the country, thereby causing rain in India.

(c) With the melting of the snow, water is provided to the rivers.

(d) The mountainous region provides ideal conditions for generation of power.

(e) Forests provide timber as well as a home for the wild animals.

(f) Tourism is a source of income in many hill stations.

(g) Minerals are also found in the mountains.

(h) Fertile soil is brought down from the Himalayas by the rivers.

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