Fermentation Technology Questions and Answers for Experienced people on “Instrumentation and Control – Online Analysis of Other Chemical Factors”.
1. Which of the following organization developed Ion-specific sensors?
A. Orion Research
Clarification: The Ion-specific sensors were developed by Orion Research and Radiometer to measure the ions. Orion is a research-based biotechnology institute in the USA.
2. The minimum response time of Ion-selective electrodes is ________
A. 10 secs
B. 15 secs
C. 5 secs
D. 20 secsid5fdba03b40e63″
Clarification: The minimum response of ion-selective electrode is 10 seconds. It is used to measure NH4+, K+, SO2–, etc. in the composition of the sample. The response time depends on the concentration of ion species in the sample.
3. Who developed the sterilized penicillinase electrodes?
Clarification: Hewetson et al. in 1979 prepared sterilized penicillinase electrodes. He assembled sterile components or by standing assembled components in chloroform before placing them in the fermenter.
4. Who developed the technique to measure glucose in a lactic acid fermentation?
Clarification: Vaccari et al. in 1994 used the technique to measure glucose, lactic acid, and biomass in a lactic acid fermentation. NIR was also used to measure alkaline protease production in broths.
5. The minimum response time of mass spectroscopy is __________
A. 15 secs
B. 10 secs
C. 5 secs
D. 2 secsid5fdba03b40e83″
Clarification: The mass spectroscopy has the response time of fewer than 5 seconds for a full-scale response and taking about 12 seconds for a sample stream. It allows the monitoring of the partial pressure of gases.
6. Which of the following is not a component of the control loop?
A. Initial control element
B. A measuring element
C. Final control element
Clarification: The components of the control loop include: a measuring element, a controller, a final control element, and the process to be controlled. It senses the properties such as flow, pressure, temperature, etc.
7. Which of the following is not a type of Automatic control system?
A. Integral controls
B. Derivative controls
C. Proportional controls
D. Displacement controlid5fdba03b40e95″
Clarification: Automatic controls are classified into four types: Integral controls, Derivatives controls, Proportional controls, Two-position controls. Displacement is not a type of control.
8. The manual control consists of ___________ to regulate the temperature.
A. Safety valve
B. Needle valve
C. Butterfly valve
D. Steam valveid5fdba03b40e9d”
Clarification: The example of control is manual control which consists of steam valves to regulate the temperature of the water flowing through the pipe. It also corrects the temperature deviation.
9. The change in the output of the controller is proportional to the input signal produced by the environmental change.
Clarification: The proportional control is explained as the change in the output of the controller is proportional to the input signal produced by the environmental change. This is commonly referred to as an error which is detected by a sensor.
10. Which of the following combination of control is not used in practice?
A. Proportional plus integral
B. Proportional plus integral minus derivative
C. Proportional plus derivative
D. Proportional plus integral plus derivativeid5fdba03b40eae”
Clarification: Three combinations of the control system are used in practice: Proportional plus integral, Proportional plus derivative, Proportional plus integral plus derivative. Proportional plus integral minus derivative is not a type of combination control.
11. Which of the following control is used to control water temperature in the heat exchanger process?
A. Feed-forward control
B. Cascade control
C. Sequential control
D. Cumulative controlid5fdba03b40eb7″
Clarification: The cascade control is used to control the temperature of water in the heat exchanger process. It consists of a primary loop and a secondary loop. The primary loop consists of a temperature sensor and the secondary loop consists of a steam flow sensor.
12. Which of the following is used in the measurement of water temperature and flow rate?
A. Cascade control
B. Sequential control
C. Feed-forward control
D. Concerted controlid5fdba03b40ebf”
Clarification: The Feed-forward control is used in the measurement of water temperature and flow rate. It is mostly used when pressure and temperature fluctuations occur in cascade control.
13. Which of the following is used when dynamics do not change with time?
A. Sequential control
B. Cascade control
C. Cumulative control
D. Adaptive controlid5fdba03b40ec8″
Clarification: Adaptive control is used when the process dynamics do not change with time or are not well defined. It is most useful in controlling the batch fermentation and fed-batch fermentation.
14. Which of the following control will lead to a reduction in deviation?
A. Cascade control
B. Adaptive control
C. Proportional plus derivative control
D. Proportional plus integral controlid5fdba03b40ed0″
Clarification: When Proportional plus derivative control is used, the output response to an error will lead to a reduction in deviation. It will also lead to faster stabilization and a reduced offset.
15. The two-position controller is a type of automatic controller.
Clarification: The two-position controller is a simplest automatic controller that is either fully open (ON) or fully closed (OFF). It has got a final control unit in the form of a switch or valve.
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