300+ TOP ENGINEERING GEOLOGY Lab Viva Questions and Answers


1. The shape of the Earth is:

2. Age of the Earth is
4.6 billion years

3. Sial and Sima are separated by
Conrad discontinuity

4. Morhorovicic discontinuity is found between
Crust and Mantle

5. Mantle and Core are separated by
Gutenberg discontinuity

GEOLOGY Viva Questions

6. The term ‘NiFe’ refers to
Core of the Earth

7. The plastic layer of the mantle is called

8. The composition of Sial is
Granitic to grano dioritic

9. The composition of Sima is

10. The polar and equatorial diameter of the Earth is
12,713 km and 12,756 km

Geomorphology :

11. The process of disintegration and decomposition is called

12. The process of Erosion includes

13. Frost action takes place due to
Freezing of water

14. Which minerals are highly susceptible to chemical weathering
Ferromagnesian Minerals

15. Which are characteristic functions of the geomorphic agents
Erosion, Transportation and Depositional works

16. William Morris Devis has recognised the stages involves in a cycle of river erosion are
Initial stage, Youth stage, Mature stage and Old stage

17. In which stage of erosional cycle maximum changes occur
Mature stage

18. Waterfalls and Gorges are characteristic features of the river in
Initial stage

19. Pot holes are formed generally by
Abrassion or Corrosion

20. Chemical erosion by river water is known as

21. The transportation by Creeping and Rolling is known as

22. The plain land produced by the river action is

23. Deltas are formed in
Old Stage of the River

24. The transportation through lifts and falls of materials is known as

25. Which type of drainage pattern develops in folded or tilted beds
Trellis pattern

26. Canyon is
A deep valley with steep near vertical sides

27. Pass is
An opening between the Mountains

28. Aeolian topography is created by the geological action of

29. Yardang topography associated with
Wind action

30. Which instrument is used to measure the wind velocity

31. Loess is
Homogeneous and unstratified deposit of silt

32. A Crescent shaped dune with two tapering arms is known as

33. Wind ripples are generally formed by
Saltation movement of sand grains

34. A normal sand-dune is characterised by
Gentle windward and Steeper leeward sides

35. Blow-outs are
Broad shallow depression in desserts

36. When one wing of a Barchan is missing, then it is known as

37. The space between the dunes is known as

38. Chinook is a local hot wind which flows mostly in
USA and Canada

39. Which abrasion is more effective in rounding the sand grains
Wind abrasion

40. “Lag-Gravel” is
The coarse sediments left behind where wind has removes the finer grain sizes

41. Glaciers are formed by
Compaction and Re-crystallisation of snow

42. Ne’ve’ or Flrn are
Granular ice mass

43. The polar glaciers are
Below the freezing point throughout the year

44. The Karst topography developed due to the action of

45. Which process is mainly responsible for development of the Karst topography
Chemical Process

46. The columns of limestone that hang from the ceiling downwards are known as

47. Stalagmites are
Rising up vertically from the floor of the cavern

48. Blind valleys are found in
Karst topography

49. Drip-stones are
Columns formed by joining of Stalactite and Stalagmite

50. ‘Terra rossa’ is
Residual red soil occurring on limestone in Karst region

51. The difference between lake and basin is
Lakes commonly occur above the mean-sea level while basins have their bottoms below the water table.

52. Dhands are
Small lakes of Aeolian origin

53. A narrow strip of water joining the two water bodies is called

54. The ocean which is between Africa and Australia
Indian Ocean

Crystallography & Mineralogy :

55. The faces, edges and solid angles have a definite relationship with each other. This relationship is expressed by
Euler’s formula

56. Euler’s formula is
F+A = E+2

57. Centre of symmetry is
Repetition is with respect to a point

58. Axis of Symmetry
Repetition is with respect to a line

59. Plane of Symmetry
Repetition is with respect to a plane

60. Which instrument is used to measure the interfacial-angle of crystals

61. Which crystal system is having maximum of classes
Hexagonal system

62. In which crystal system majority of minerals crystallises
Monoclinic system

63. The Isometric system is characterised by
4 axes of 3 fold symmetry

64. What is the normal interfacial angle in dodecahedron form of cubic system

65. Gyroidal class belongs to
Isometric system

66. The cleavages in twinned crystals are
In different directions

67. Butterfly twinning is seen in

68. Pericline twin is found in

69. The degree of transparency of a mineral is known as

70. Give an example of a mineral in which cleavage is absent
Quartz, Corundum

71. Hardness of human nail varies between
1.5 to 2.5

72. Hardness is which kind of property
Anisotropic (A mineral may show different values in different directions.)

73. The tendency of a crystallized mineral to break along certain directions yielding more or less smooth, plane surface is

74. The behaviour of a mineral towards the forces that tend to destroy it is called

75. A Mineral is
Naturally occurring inorganic substance with definite chemical composition

76. The external appearance of a Mineral is known as
Habit/ Form

77. The powered form of a mineral is

78. Shining property of a Mineral is

79. Form in which neither a crystal face nor a cleavage is seen in

80. Quartz shows which lustre

81. Which mineral shows silky lustre
Asbestos, Gypsum

82. Mica is
Flexible and elastic

83. Kyanite shows which form

84. Structure or form which depicts leaf like sheets is

85. Muscovite mica shows which structure

86. Which form resembles human kidney

87. chromite shows which type of structure

88. Colour changing phenomenon which involves oxidation is
Tarnish (A phenomenon of change of original colours of minerals to some secondary colours at its surface due to oxidation at the surface)

89. Diamond shows which type of lustre

90. Streak is an important diagnostic property of
Coloured minerals

91. Generally which minerals give streak
Coloured and opaque

92. Hardness of a mineral depends upon
Chemical composition and atomic constitution

93. The scale of hardness is
Mohs (It was in 1822 that Austrian mineralogist F. Mohs proposed a relative, broadly quantitative “scale of hardness” of minerals assigning values between 1 to 10)

94. Which mineral group is abundantly found in the Earth’s crust
Feldspar group (Second abundant is Silicate or Quartz group)

95. Feldspar is found majority in which kind of rock
Igneous rocks

96. Acicular habit shown in

97. Violet colour of Amethyst is due to

98. The mineral which can be cut and powdered are known as

99. Opaque minerals indicate their origin from a
Rapidly cooled silicate melt

100. Orpiment and Realgar are Sulphides of

Optical Mineralogy :

101. In natural light, the elctro-magnetic vibrations are:
Always perpendicular to the direction of light-wave prorogation

102. Refractive index depends upon
Nature of the substance and Kind of light used

103. The refractive index of Canada balsam is

104. Plane polarised light can be produced by
Nicol prism, Reflections, Absorption

105. Backe-line method is used to determine the
Refractive index

106. Which property determines the colour

107. The wavelength varies from slightly more than …. at the red end to about …. at the violet end
7000 Å and 4000 Å respecively

108. The isotropic substance has
A single refractive index

109. Double refraction phenomenon shown by
Anisotropic substance

110. The angle between the reflected and refracted ray is 900, stated by
Brewster’s law

111. Which crystal systems are optically uniaxial
Hexagonal and Tetragonal

112. Which crystal systems have two optic axis
Orthorhombic, Monoclinic and Triclinic

113. Uniaxial crystal are positive if
Ordinary ray has the greater velocity than the Extraordinary ray

114. The difference between the maximum and minimum indices of a particular mineral is known as

115. What is the birefringence of Quartz mineral

116. Birefringence is used to determine
Thickness of section

117. Bereck compensator is an optical device which is made up of

118. The order of interference colour is determined by
Quartz plate

119. A Polaroid is a
Light filter

120. Biaxial minerals show
Symmetrical extinction

121. Complete extinction occurs only when the section is
Perpendicular to optic symmetry

122. Which is also known as Glimmer plate
Gypsum plate

123. Amorphous substance are

124. Orthoclase is distinguished from Quartz in thin section by
Low refractive index, Type of twinning and Negative sign

125. The Michael-Levy method is used to determine the extinction angle of

126. Which plate is generally used to determine the optical sign of plagioclase
Selenite plate

127. The Orthopyroxenes show interference colour of
1st order

128. Which type of extinction is often shown by Quartz mineral

129. Calcite is characterised by
Rhombohedral cleavage, low interference colour and optically negative character

130. Calcite and Magnesite can be distinguished from one another in thin section
Magnesite is never twinned

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