UNIT I :-

1. Draw the block diagram of a Pulsed radar and explain its operation
2. Write the relative factors between the radar’s cross section of the target and its true cross sections
5. Discuss in detail the choice of various parameters that are affecting the radar range
6. Derive the range equation and discuss about its limitations
7. what do you understand by false alarm
8. A pulsed radar operating at 10GHz has an antenna with a gain of 28dB and a transmitter power of 2KW . If it is defined to detect a target with a cross section of 12sq.m and the minimum detectable signal is Pmin= -90dBm. What is the maximum range of the radar

UNIT II :-

1. What is meant by minimum detectable signal in radar. Discuss the effects of integration of radar pulses
2. What are the desirable pulse characteristics and the factors that govern them in a radar system
3. Discuss about detection of signals in noise
4. Describe the different noise components present in radar systems
5. Explain about PRF and range ambiguities

UNIT III :-

2. Explain the operation of CW radar with neat block diagram
3. derive the expression for the velocity of the target when the target is moving away from the radar in the case FM-CW radar
4. an 8GHZ Police radar measures a Doppler frequency of 1788HZ from a car approaching the stationary police vehicle in an 80 km/h speed limit zone .what should the police officer do?
6. Draw the block diagram of non coherent MTI radar and explain the function of each block in detail
8. Explain the applications of CW radar.
9. Explain the principle of Doppler effect and its application CW radar.
10. Derive an expression for unambiguous range of a two frequency CW radar.

UNIT IV :-

1) Explain the principle of operation FM –CW altimeter with suitable diagrams.
2) Determine the beat frequency due to range and the quantization error if range=100m, and the frequency excursion is 75Hz and modulating frequency is 1Khz.
3) Explain the operation of sideband superhetreodyne CW Doppler radar with block diagram.
4) Explain how the noise signals are limiting the performance of FM-altimeter .

UNIT V :-

1) A simple MTI delay line canceller is an example of time domain filter .Why? Explain.
2) Enumerate the advantage of the time delay line canceller as compared to the convention frequency domain filter.
3) Draw the bloc diagram of four pulse canceller and find the weight for the same.
4) Differentiate three- pulse canceller from four pulse canceller.
5) Description of Range gate Doppler filters.
6) Differentiate blind phases from blind speeds.
7) Explain the effect of Doppler frequency ‘fd’ for the stationary objects and moving targets.
8)Explain the butterfly effect that is produced by MTI.
9) Draw and explain frequency response characteristics of a MTI using range gates and filters.
12. What is the distinctive feature that makes the MTI radar and Pulse Doppler to differ ?

UNIT VI :-

1) Explain Tracking Principles
2) Explain the block diagram of amplitude comparison monopulse radar for single angular coordinate and explain its operation
3).Explain phase comparison monopulse tracking radar technique
8).Compare the tracking techniques

UNIT VII :-

1).Explain the characteristics of a matched filter receiver with necessary equations
2).Explain about matched and non –matched filters
3).Explain the characteristics of a cross –correlation receiver with a block diagram
4)Derive and explain the efficiency of non-matched filters
5).Explain about matched filter with non –white noise

UNIT VIII :-

1).Define the following terms
a)noise figure b)noise temperature c)system noise
2).Explain various types of radar displays
3).Three networks units ,each of 6db noise figure and 10db, 6db and 3db gains respectively are cascaded.Determine the Overall noise figure of the system.
4).Explain different types of Duplexers

UNIT – 1 :-

1. Explain the basic principle of elementary form of Radar. (April/May 2012)
2. (a) What is a Radar? How it is used in communications?
(b) Derive the equation for maximum Radar Range in terms of radar and target parameters. (April/May 2012)
3. What are the various applications of Radar? (April/May 2012)
4. What are the specific bands assigned by ITU for the Radar? What the corresponding frequencies? (April/May 2012)
5. (a) Explain how the Radar is used to measure the direction and position of target?
(b) What are the peak power and duty cycle of a radar whose average transmitter power is 200W, pulse width of 1μs and a pulse repetition frequency of 1000Hz? (April/May 2012)
6. (a) Write the simplifier version of radar range equation and explain how this equation does not adequately describe the performance of practical radar?
(b) What are the specific bands assigned by the ITU for the Radar? What the corresponding frequencies? (April 2011)
7. (a) What are the different range of frequencies that a radar can operate and give their applications?
(b) What are the basic functions of radar? In indicating the position of a target, what is the difference between azimuth and elevation? (April 2011)
8. (a) Explain how the radar is used to measure the range of a target?
(b) Draw the block diagram of the pulse radar. Explain the function of each block.
(b) Write about the frequencies that are used for Radar Communications? (Jan 2010)
10. Derive the simple form of the radar equation? And explain the significance of each term in that equation. (January 2010)
11. Draw the block diagram of pulse radar and explain the function of each block and its operation? (January 2010)
12. (a) What are the applications of radar?
(b) Write the radar equation and explain the factors on which it depends? (Jan 2010)
13. (a) Derive the maximum range for a radar system from first principles.
(b) Explain the applications of radar. (May/June 2009)
14. (a) Obtain the radar equation and discuss various parameters which improve the performance of radar.
(b) A pulsed radar operating at 10 GHz has an antenna with a gain of 28dB and a transmitter of 2 KW (pulse power). If it is defined to detect a target with a cross section of 12 sqm and the minimum detectable signal is -90dBm. What is the maximum range of the radar? (May/June 2009)
15. (a) Obtain the radar equation and discuss various parameters which improve the performance of radar.
(b) Draw the simple radar block diagram and explain its operation?
16. (a) A pulsed radar operating at 10 GHz has an antenna with a gain of 28dB and a transmitter of 2 KW (pulse power). If it is defined to detect a target with a cross section of 12 sqm and the minimum detectable signal is -90dBm. What is the maximum range of the radar?
(b) Explain the applications of radar. (May/June 2009)
17. (a) Discuss the parameters on which maximum detectable range of a radar system depends?
(b) Compute the maximum detectable range of a radar system specified below:
Operating wavelength = 3.2 cm
Peak pulse transmitted power = 500 kW.
Minimum detectable power = 10-13 W.
Capture area of the antenna = 5 sq.m.
Radar cross-sectional area of the target = 20 sq.m. (November 2008)
18. (a) Derive fundamental radar range equation governed by minimum receivable echo power Smin.
(b) Modify the range equation for an antenna with a transmitting gain G and operating at a wavelength, λ. (November 2008)
19. (a) Draw the functional block diagram of simple pulse radar and explain the purpose and functioning of each block in it.
(b) List major applications of radar in civil and military systems. (November 2008)
20. (a) With the help of suitable block diagram explain the operation of pulse radar.
(b) For the specifications of a radar listed below, compute the power received at 50 km distance from the radar antenna.
Operating wavelength = 3.0 cm
Peak pulse transmitted power = 320 kW.
Transmitting gain, G of the antenna = 9.6 X 104
Effective aperture area of receiving antenna = 5 sq.m.
Radar cross-sectional area of the target σ = 20 sq.m (November 2008)
21. (a) Obtain the radar equation and discuss various parameters which improve the performance of radar.
(b) Explain the applications of radar. (May 2008)
22. (a) Describe the working principle of pulsed Radar System.
(b) Derive the range equation and discuss about its limitation (May 2008)
23. (a) Draw the block diagram of a pulsed radar and explain it’s operation.
(b) What are the desirable pulse characteristics and the factors that govern them in a Radar System? (May 2008)
24. (a) Obtain the radar equation and discuss various parameters which improve the performance of radar.
(b) Explain the applications of radar. (April/May 2008)
25. (a) Derive the Radar range equation.
(b) With a block diagram explain the operation of pulse radar. (April/May 2008)
26. (a) Describe a pulsed Radar System. Discuss how the direction and range of an object is determined using this system.
27. (a) Draw the diagram of a Basic Radar System and explain the operation of each block in detail.
(b) Discuss the range of radar frequencies in electromagnetic spectrum. (June 2007)
28. (a) Describe the working principle pulsed Radar System.
(b) Derive the Radar range equation and discuss about its limitation. (June 2007)
29. (a) Derive the Radar range equation.
(b) With a block diagram explain the operation of pulse radar (June 2007)
30. (a) Derive the maximum range for a Radar system, from first principles.
(b) A pulsed radar operating at 10 GHz has an antenna with a gain of 28dB and a transmitter of 2 kW (pulse power). If it is defined to detect a target with a cross section of 12 sqm and the minimum detectable signal is Pmin = -90dBm. What is the maximum range of the radar? (June 2007)
31. (a) Draw the diagram of a Basic Radar System and explain the operation of each block in detail.
(b) Discuss the range of radar frequencies in electromagnetic spectrum.(Apr/May 07)
32. (a) Describe a pulsed Radar System. Discuss how the direction and range of an object is determined using this system.
33. (a) Derive the Radar range equation.
(b) With a block diagram explain the operation of pulse radar (April/May 2007)
34. (a) Derive the basic Radar equation.
(b) What are the problems & limitations in the prediction of radar range?(Apr/May 07)
35. (a) Derive the maximum range for a Radar system, from first principles.
(b) A pulsed radar operating at 10 GHz has an antenna with a gain of 28dB and a transmitter of 2 kW (pulse power). If it is defined to detect a target with a cross section of 12 sqm and the minimum detectable signal is Pmin = -90dBm. What is the maximum range of the radar? (June 2006)
36. (a) Describe the working principle of pulsed Radar System.
(b) Derive the range equation and discuss about its limitation (June 2006)
37. (a) Draw the diagram of a Basic Radar System and explain the operation of each block in detail.
(b) Discuss the range of radar frequencies in electromagnetic spectrum.(June 2006)
38. (a) Derive the basic Radar equation.
(b) What are the problems and limitations in the prediction of radar range (June 2006)

UNIT-II :-

1. Explain how the power received by the Radar is related to the cross section? Explain the significance of each term. (April/May 2012)
2. (a) A low power, short range radar is solid-state throughout, including a low-noise RF amplifier which gives it an overall noise figure of 4.77dB. If the antenna diameter is 1m, IF bandwidth is 500kHz, the operating frequency is 8 GHz and the radar set is supposed to be capable of detecting targets of 5m2 cross sectional area at a maximum distance of 12 km, what must be the peak transmitted pulse power?
(b)The average false alarm time is a more significant parameter than the false alarm probability. Give reasons.
(c) Why post detection integration is not as efficient as pre-detection integration of radar pulses? (April/May 2012 & April 2011)
3. (a) Discuss about the factors that influence the prediction of Radar range.
(b) Define noise bandwidth of a radar receiver, How does it differ from 3-dB bandwidth? Obtain the expression for minimum detectable signal in terms of noise bandwidth, noise figure and other relevant parameters. (April/May 12 & April,11)
4. (a) Explain how a threshold level is selected in threshold detection?
(b) How to find the number of pulses that returned from a point target as the radar antenna scans through its beam width?
(c)Why most of the radar receivers are considered as envelop detectors while calculating the SNR (April, 2008)
5. (a) Obtain the SNR at the output of IF amplifier of Radar Receiver for a specified probability of detection without exceeding a specified probability of false alarm.
(b) Explain how system losses will affect on the Radar Range? (April 2011)
6. (a)Derive the equation for minimum detectable signal Smin in terms of output signal to noise ratio?
(b) Discuss the effect of pulse repetition frequency on the receiver.
(a) Minimum detectable signal (Smin)
(b) Target cross section σ (January 2010)
(a) False alarm time Tfa
(b) Radar cross section of Target (January 2010)
9. (a) Discuss the effect of nose on the radar receiver sensitivity?
(i) Beam-shape loss (ii) collapsing loss (January 2010)
10. Write explanatory notes on:
(i) Minimum detectable signal (ii) False alarm (iii) Missed detection. (May/June 2009)
11. (a) Explain detection of signals in noise.
(b) Describe different noise components present in radar systems. (May/June 2009)
12. Write explanatory notes on: (i) Pulse repetition frequency and range ambiguities
(ii) System losses (May/June 2009)
13. Write explanatory notes on: (i) Receiver noise (ii) Signal to noise ratio
(iii) Radar cross section of Target (May/June 2009)
14. (a) Describe how threshold level for detection is decided in the presence of receiver noise for a specified probability of occurrence of false alarms.
(b) Describe the effect of Pulse repetition frequency on the estimated unambiguous range of radar. (November 2008)
15. (a) Describe the effect of (in terms of wavelength of operation) size of a simple spherical target on determination of radar cross section of the sphere.
(b) What are multiple-time-around echoes? Explain the relation between unambiguous range estimation and multiple-time-around echoes. (Nov 2008)
16. (a) Establish a relation between the probability of false alarm and detection threshold level of a radar receiver in the presence of noise?
(b) Estimate the radar cross-section of a spherical target if the wavelength of transmitting signal with reference to the target size is in Rayleigh region. (November 2008)
17. (a) Justify the requirement of integration of radar pulses to improve target detection process?
(b) List all the possible losses in a radar system and discuss the possible causes of each of them (November 2008)
18. (a) What is False alarm and probability of detection?
(b) What is Radar cross section? How does it control the performance of Radar? (May 2008)
19. (a) Explain the following:
i. Prediction of range performance ii. PRF and range ambiguities
(b) Transmitter power (May 2008)
20. Describe in detail the various system losses that affect the characteristics of the Radar. (May 2008)
21. Discuss in detail about the different types of losses that occur through out the radar system. (Apr/May2008)
22. Write short notes on:
(i) Radar cross section of Target
(ii) System losses in Radar (April / May 2008)
23. (a) Explain the significance of probability of false alarm and probability of miss.
(b) Explain about the Integration of Radar pulses. (April / May 2008)

UNIT – III :-

1. (a) What is transmitter clutter? How it affects the detection of targets?
(b) Draw the block diagram of CW Doppler radar with nonzero IF receiver and explain each block. (April/May 2012)
2. (a) Draw the block diagram and explain the operation of CW Doppler radar using an intermediate frequency in the receiver. How have the drawbacks of the basic CW radar been overcome?
(b) With a (CW) transmit frequency of 5 GHz, calculate the Doppler frequency seen by a stationary radar when the target radial velocity is 100km/h (62.5mph). (April/May 2012)
(b)What are the collapsing losses? Give the mathematical equation for it, and explain each parameter. (April/ May 2012)
4. (a)Explain how earphones are used as an indicator in CW Radar?
(b)The transmitter power is 1 KW and safe value of power which might be applied to a receiver is 10mW. Find the isolation between transmitter and receiver in dB. Suggest the appropriate isolator. (April/May 2012 & April 2011)
5. (a)What is the Doppler effect? What are some of the ways in which it manifests itself? What are its radar applications?
(b)Find the relation between bandwidth and the acceleration of the target with respect to radar? (April, 2011)
6. (a) Draw the block diagram of IF Doppler bank and explain the operation of it with the help of frequency response of it.
(b) What are the effects which limit the amount of transmitter leakage power which can be tolerated at the receiver (April, 2011)
7. (a)How to find the target speed from Doppler frequency?
(b) Write the applications of CW Radar.
(c) What are the factors that limit the amount of isolation between Transmitter and Receiver of CW Radar? (April 2011)
8. (a) Draw the block diagram of IF Doppler filter bank? Draw its frequency response characteristics?
(b) Calculate Doppler frequency shift (fd) when the relative velocity of target with respect to radar is 50 knots at a transmitted frequency of 80 MHz. (Jan. 2010)
9. What are the methods that provide isolation between transmitter and receiver? (January 2010)
10. (a)Draw the block diagram of a simple CW radar and explain the working of each block? (b)Explain about transmitter clutter. (January 2010)
11. (a)Explain about the Doppler effect?
12. Explain the operation of CW Doppler radar non zero IF with neat block diagram. (May/June 2009)
13. (a) Define Doppler effect. Explain how it is used in CW radar?
(b) Explain how isolation between transmitter and receiver is obtained in CW Radar? (May/June 2009)
14. (a) Define Doppler effect. Explain the operation of simple in CW radar with block diagram. List its applications.
15. Explain the principle of operation of CW Doppler radar with non zero IF receiver (May/June 2009)
16. (a) With the help of a suitable block diagram explain the operation of a CW Doppler radar in a sideband super heterodyne receiver.
(b) Calculate the Doppler frequency of stationary CW radar transmitting at 6 MHz frequency when a moving target approaches the radar with a radial velocity is 100km/h.
(c) List the limitations of CW radar. (November 2008)
17. (a) What is Doppler frequency shift? Establish a relation between Doppler frequency and radial velocity of a moving target.
(b) Explain how isolation between transmitter and receiver of a radar system can be achieved if single antenna is used for transmission and reception.(May 2008)
18. (a) What is Doppler frequency shift? Discuss the effect of receiver bandwidth on the efficiency of detection and performance of a CW Doppler radar.
(b) With the help of a suitable block diagram, explain the operation of a CW tracking illuminator application of a CW radar. (November 2008)
19. (a) With the help of a suitable block diagram, explain the operation of a CW radar with non-zero IF in the receiver.
(b)Describe methods to achieve isolation between transmitter and receiver of a CW Doppler radar if same antenna is to be used for transmission and reception. (November 2008)
20. (a) Define Doppler frequency. Explain the significance of Doppler frequency while detecting the target.
(b)Derive an expression for the relative velocity of the target in CW Radar.
(c)Explain the limitations of CW radar. (May 2008)
21. (a) Explain the principle of Doppler effect and its application in CW Radar.
(b) Draw the block diagram of a simple CW radar and explain its working? (May 2008)
22. An 8GHz police Radar measures a Doppler frequency of 1788Hz from a car approaching the stationary police vehicle in an 80km/h speed limit zone. What should the police officer do (April / May 2008)
23. (a) Discuss in detail the quantitative analysis of Receiver noise and hence derive the expression for minimum detectable signal.
(b) Discuss about probability density functions?

UNIT – IV :-

1. (a) Why the step error and quantization errors which occur in cycle counter are used for frequency measurement in FMCW Radar?
(b) Draw the block diagram of sinusoidally modulated FMCW Radar and explain the function of each block. (April/May 2012 & April 2011)
2. (a) Draw the block diagram and explain the operation of CW Doppler radar using an intermediate frequency in the receiver. How have the drawbacks of the basic CW radar been overcome?
(b) With a (CW) transmit frequency of 5 GHz, calculate the Doppler frequency seen by a stationary radar when the target radial velocity is 100km/h (62.5mph). (April/May 2012)
3. (a)Explain how earphones are used as an indicator in CW Radar?
(b)The transmitter power is 1 KW and safe value of power which might be applied to a receiver is 10mW. Find the isolation between transmitter and receiver in dB. Suggest the appropriate isolator. (April/May 2012 & April 2011)
4. (a) What are the various unwanted signals which cause errors in FM altimeter?
(b) Explain the two frequency CW technique for measuring the Radar range?
(April 11)
5. (a) What is the beat frequency? How it is used in FMCW Radar?
(b) Explain how the multipath signals produce error in FM altimeter? (April 11)
6. (a) Explain the operation of the two frequency CW Radar.
(b) How to select the difference between two transmitted signals of CW radar? (April 2011)
7. (a) Explain how FM-CW radar is used to find the height of the aircraft above the surface of the earth?
(b) Discuss about the measurement errors involved in finding height? (April, 2011)
8. (a) Draw the block diagram FM-CW radar and explain its operation principles?
9. (a) Write necessary equations to measure range and Doppler frequency in FM-CW Radar?
10. (a) What are the major drawbacks of a simple CW radar?
11. (a) Explain the principle of operation of FMCW altimeter with suitable diagram
(b) Explain how the noise signals are limiting the performance of FMCW altimeter. (May/June 2009)
12. (a) Explain the principle of operation of FMCW altimeter with suitable diagram
(b) Describe the operation of multiple frequency CW radar? (May/June 2009)
13. (a) Explain the operation of sinusoidally modulated FMCW Radar extracting the third harmonic with neat block diagram.
(b) Explain the operation of multiple frequency CW radar? (May/June 2009)
14. (a) Explain how range and Doppler measurements are performed using FMCW radar (b) Discuss about measurement errors. (May/June 2009)
15. (a) With the help of suitable block diagram, explain the operation of a FM-CW altimeter. (b) Discuss all the possible errors in the measurement accuracy of altitudes using a FM-CW radar. (November 2008)
16. (a) List out the possible errors for measurement of altitudes accurately using a FM-CW radar. (b) Discuss the results of multiple frequency usage for operating FM-CW radar while mentioning the limitations of multiple frequency usage in CW radars. (Nov 08)
17. (a)Range and Doppler measurement of a target using a FM-CW radar.
(b) Unwanted signals and the measurement errors in FM altimeter. (Nov 08)
18. (a) With necessary mathematical expressions, describe Range and Doppler measurement if the transmitted signal of a CW Doppler radar is frequency modulated.
(b) Describe the effect of sinusoidally modulating signal in the place of rectangular pulses on the performance of a radar. (November 2008)
19. (a) What is the purpose of filter banks in CW radar receivers? Draw the block diagram of IF Doppler filter bank and draw its frequency response.
(b)For a given Doppler filter bank can the velocity resolution be made smaller by increasing or decreasing the transmitted frequency? Explain your answer. (May 2008 & April / May 2008)
20. (a) Explain the operation of FM-CW radar when the modulation is triangular and object is not stationary with help of neat Sketches.
(b) Derive an expression for range frequency in case of FMCW Radar (May 2008)
21. Explain the principle of operation FMCW Altimeter with suitable diagram. (May 2008)
22. (a) Explain the operation of FMCW radar when the modulation is linear and triangular and target is assumed to be stationary with help of neat Sketches.
(b) Explain the need for a bank of narrowband filters in FMCW radar. (Apr /May 08)
23. (a) Derive an expression for Range Doppler measurement for an FMCW Radar
(b) Determine the Range and Doppler velocity for a FM-CW Radar if the target is approaching the Radar. Given the beat frequency fb (up) = 20kH and fb (down) = 30 kHz for the triangular modulation, the modulating frequency is 1MHz and Doppler frequency shift is 1 kHz. (April / May 2008)

UNIT – V :-

1. (a) What is the method of overcoming the problems of blind speed in analog radars?
(b) What is the need of delay line canceller? Explain three pulse canceller. (April/May 2012)
2. (a) With the block diagram explain MTI radar using range gated Doppler filters?
(b) Differentiate blind phases from blind speeds? (April/May 2012)
3. (a) Discuss about the internal fluctuation of clutter which limits the performance of MTI Radar.
(b) Describe briefly the analog MTI systems. (April/May 2012)
4. (a) Explain how the bipolar video signal is converted in to unipolar signal in MTI radar that uses range gates and filters.
(b) Derive an expression for blind speeds of MTI radar. Discuss the effect of large wavelength and large PRF on lowest blind speed of target. (April/May 2012)
5. (a) An MTI radar is operated at 9GHz with a PRF of 3000 pps. Calculate the first two lowest blind speed for this radar. Derive the formula used.
(b) Discuss the limitations of non-cohorent MTR Radar systems. (April 2011)
6. Explain the following limitations of MTR Radar
(a) Equipment instabilities (b) Scanning modulation
(c) Internal fluctuation of clutter. (April 2011)
7. (a) Write the description of Range gate Doppler filters. (b) Explain the operation of MTI radar with 2 pulse repetition frequencies? (April 2011)
8. (a) Explain the function of time domain filter with an example.
(b) An MTI radar is operates at 10GHz with a PRF of 300 pps. Calculate the lowest blind speed? (Apr ‘11)
9. Discuss the filter characteristics of the delay line canceller? (January 2010)
10. (a) Explain about range gated Doppler filters?
(b) Compare the performance of MTI with pulse Doppler radar? (January 2010)
11. (a)Draw the block diagram of delay line filter which produces a 3-pole Chebyshev low pass filter characteristics with 0.5db ripple in the pass band?
(b) Write about the following: (i) Blind speeds (ii) staggered prf.
12. (a) Draw the block diagram of MTI radar and explain its operation?
(b) What is the necessity for a delay line canceller? Compare the performance of double delay line canceller with single delay line canceller? (January 2010)
13. (a) Explain the principle of operation of MTI radar with power amplifier transmitter with neat block diagram?
(b) What is butterfly effect? What are its advantages. (May/June 2009)
14. a) Explain the principle of operation of MTI radar with power oscillator transmitter with neat block diagram?
(b) Discuss the blind speeds. (May/June 2009)
15. (a) Discuss about staggered pulse repetition frequencies?
(b) Explain the principle of operation of MTI radar using range gates and filters. (May/June 2009)
16. Write notes on the following : (i) Delay line cancellers (ii) Blind speeds (iii) Clutter attenuation (iv) Transversal filters (May/June 2009)
17. (a) What is a delay line canceller? Illustrate the concept of blind speeds based on the frequency response of a single delay line canceller?
(b) Discuss the factors limiting the performance of an MTI System? (Nov2008)
18. What are blind speeds? Suggest a method to reduce the effect of blind speeds for unambiguous detection of a moving target.
(b) Calculate the lowest blind speed of an MTI system operating at 3.6 cm wavelength and transmitting at a pulse repetition time of 330 μS
(c) Explore the possibility of broadening the clutter rejection null using a second delay line canceller in the MTI radar system (November 2008)
19. What are blind speeds? Suggest a method to reduce the effect of blind speeds for unambiguous detection of a moving target.
(b) Calculate the lowest blind speed of an MTI system operating at 4.2 cm wavelength and transmitting at a pulse repetition time of 286 μS.
(c) Explore the possibility of broadening the clutter rejection null using a second delay line canceller in the MTI radar system. (November 2008)
20. (a) With the help of a necessary block diagram, explain the operation of an MTI radar system with a power amplifier in the transmitter.
(b) Compare and contrast the situations with a power amplifier and a power oscillator in the transmitter of an MTI system.
(c) Describe the method of staggering pulse repetition frequency to reduce the effect of blind speeds in an MTI system? (November 2008)
21. (a) Explain in detail the filter characteristics of the delay line canceler.
(b) Explain how the effect of blind speeds reduced by operating at more than one PRF. (May 2008)
22. (a) What is the difference between single cancellation and double cancellation in delay line cancelers? Explain.
(b) An MTI Radar system operating at 10GHz and a repetition rate of 1000Hz receives echoes from an aircraft that is approaching the radar with a radial velocity component of 1 km / sec. Determine the radial velocity component as measured by the radar? (May 2008 & April/May 2008)
23. (a) With an MTI Radar system we can get the radial velocity as well as the distance of the moving target. Justify this.
(b) How blind speeds can be controlled by using staggered PRF? (May 2008)
24. (a) Explain the operation of FMCW radar when modulation is linear and triangular, and target is assumed to be stationary with the help of neat sketches.
(b) Explain the need for a bank of narrowband filters in FMCW radar.
25. (a) Calculate the second blind speed of MTI radar whose operating wave length is 5.0 cm and the pulse repetition frequency is 2000Hz.
(b) What is staggered PRF? Where and why is it used in a radar system?
(c) Explain the technique to increase the blind speeds found with MTI radar. (April/May 2008)
26. (a) Description of Range gate Doppler filters.
(b) Differentiate blind phases from blind speeds?
(c) Discuss the application of electrostatic storage tubes in MTI radar. (April/May 08)

UNIT – VI :-

1. (a) What is the chief advantage of automatic detection and tracking?
b) What are its limitations? Explain April 2012
2. (a) Describe the conical scanning method? – April 2012
(b) Explain how AGC is achieved in conical scan? April 2012
3. (a) Explain the block diagram of amplitude comparison Monopulse fir extracting error signals in both elevation and azimuth
(b) With diagrams explain split-range-gate tracking April 2012
4. (a) Explain phase comparison Monopulse tracking radar.
(b) Discuss in detail about angle fluctuations April 2012
5. (a) Draw and explain block diagram of Conical scan tracking radar
(b) Why does tracking radar have poor accuracy at low elevation angles? Apr 11
6. Why is amplitude comparison Monopulse is likely to be preferred over the phase comparison Monopulse and conical scan tracker over sequential lobing, or lobe switching, tracker? April 2012
7. (a) Draw and explain the following with respect to Tracking in range? (i) Echo Pulse (ii) Early-Late range gates (ii) Difference signal between early and Late range gates ? (b )Limitation of automatic detection and tracking April 2011
8. (a) Discuss in detail about the amplitude fluctuations and how its effects are minimized
(b) Explain Monopulse tracking in two angle coordinates? – April 2011
9. (a) Compare the performance of simultaneous lobing technique with conical scanning techniques? Apr ‘11
10. Draw the block diagram of amplitude comparison Monopulse radar? Explain?
11. (a) Explain how tracking is achieved using radar?
12. (a) Explain about Split-range-gate tracking ?
(b) Compare the four continuous tracking radar techniques? January 2010
13. (a) Compare tracking techniques?
(b) Explain the principle of operation of phase comparison Monopulse tracking radar? May/June ‘09
14. (a) Explain in detail about the limitations to tracking accuracy
(b) Explain the operation of amplitude comparison Monopulse tracking radar with the help of block diagram? May/June 2009
15. (a) Compare sequential lobing and conical scanning?
(b) Explain in detail about limitations of tracking accuracies? May/June 2009
16. Explain the following
(i) Low angle tracking (ii) Tracking in Range (iii) Acquisition May/June 2009
17. (a) Discuss the phase comparison Monopulse tracking techniques in a radar system with the help of necessary block diagram –November 2008
(b) Discuss the effect of surface quality and reflection characteristics of a target on the angular tracking accuracy of tracking radar? – November 2008
18. (a) With the help of a suitable block diagram, sequential lobing type of tracking technique in a tracking radar system? (b) Compare and contrast conical scan and sequential lobing type tracking techniques? (c) Describe the process of acquiring a moving target prior to tracking it along with patterns used for acquisition? Nov’08
19. List the merits and demerits of Monopulse tracker over conical scan type tracker? Nov ‘08
20. Draw the block diagram of amplitude comparison Monopulse tracking radar in azimuth and elevation directions. Explain the functioning of this two dimensional tracking radar? November 2008
21. (a) Compare the tracking techniques?
(b) Explain in detail about limitations to tracking accuracy? May 2008
22. How many techniques are employed to track a radar target? Explain that technique which employs one single pulse for extracting error information? June 2007

UNIT – VII :-

1. Explain in detail about Efficiency of non-matched filters compared with the matched filter? (Apr/May ‘12)
2. Explain the principle and characteristics of a matched filter hence derive the expression for frequency response function? (April/May 2012)
3. (a) Discuss about efficiency of non matched filters?
(b) Discuss about matched filter with non white noise? (April/May 2012)
4. (a) Write short notes on matched filter?
(b) Write the short notes on non matched filter? (April/May 2012)
5. Discuss in detail about matched filter Receiver with necessary expressions? (Apr 12)
6. Discuss the relation between matched filter characteristics and correlation detection? (April 2011)
7. Derive the impulse response of a matched filter that is commonly used in a radar receiver?
8. (a) Explain the equivalence between matched filter and correlator? (January 2010)
(b) Discuss about the performance of matched filter with non-white noise?
9. Draw the block diagram of a correlation receiver and explain its operation with necessary equations? (January 2010)
10. (a) Derive the transfer function for matched filter?
(b) Write about the following (i) Coherent detector (ii) Likelihood-ratio receiver (January 2010)
11. Draw the block diagram of a correlation receiver and explain its operation with necessary equations? (January 2010)
12. (a) What is a matched filter receiver? Draw its response characteristics?
(b) Describe the operation of matched filter with non white noise? (May/June 2009)
13. (a) Derive the matched filter characteristic? (May/June 2009)
(b) Discuss about efficiency of non-matched filters?
14. (a) Derive the matched filter characteristic? (May/June 2009)
(b) Discuss about matched filter correlation function?
15. (a) Derive the equation for impulse response of a matched filter.
(b) Write short notes on (i) Efficiency of non matched filters. (ii) Matched filter with non white noise. (May/June 2009)
16. (a) Derive the impulse response of a matched filter that is commonly used in a radar receiver.
(b) Describe any two types of duplexers used in radar receivers (November 2008)
17. (a)Describe briefly various visual displays to view radar echo signals in radar systems.
(b) Explain the necessity of a matched filter in radar receiver to improve its signal to noise ratio based on frequency response characteristic of the matched filter. (November 2008)
18. Explain the principle and characteristics of a matched filter. Hence derive the expression for its frequency response function. (May 2008, April/May 2007)
19. (a)Explain the principle and process of correlation detection
20. (b) Explain and distinguish between different ECCM options. (Apr/May 07, 08, June 07,June 06))
21. (a) Explain the characteristics of a matched filter receiver, with necessary equations.
(b) Write notes on: Noise jamming, Repeater jamming. (June 2007)
22. (a)Describe and distinguish between the different types of ECM directed against radar.(b) Discuss the relations between the matched filter characteristics and correlation function. (April/May 2007, & June 2007)
23. Write notes and explain about: (June 2007,April/May 2007,June 2006)
(a) Passive ECM. (b) Matched and non-matched filters.
(c) North filter. (d) Anti jamming techniques.
24. (a) Establish the impulse response characteristic for a matched filter.
(b) Derive the radar range expression in terms of jammer bandwidth and power. (June 2006)

UNIT – VIII :-

1. Explain in detail about N-element linear array and derive its Radiation pattern expression. (Apr/May ’12)
2. Why might a double-conversion super heterodyne receiver be used instead of single-conversion receiver. What limitation might there be in using double-conversion receiver? (Apr/May ’12)
3. (a) Discuss Radar CRT phosphor characteristics.
(b) Explain about Color CRTs. (Apr/May ’12)
5. (a) the structures of balanced duplexer during transmission and reception modes.
(b) List out the merits and demerits of phased array antennas. (Apr. 2011)
6. (a) Explain the basic concept of phased array antennas.
(b) Explain characteristics of different radar displays. (Apr. 2011)
7. (a) Draw and explain the radiation pattern of phased array antennas.
(b) Write notes on various antenna parameters with reference to radar. (Apr. 2011)
8. (a) Explain the functioning and characteristics of PPI display and A-Scope.
(b) Explain the terms Linear Array, Planar array, Broadside array and endfire array. (Apr. 2011)
9. (a) Explain the effect of noise figure on the radar receiver ?
(b) Write the principle of branch type duplexer. (Jan. 2010)
(b) Compare series feeds and parallel feeds. (Jan. 2010)
11. (a) Explain the principle of the balanced mixer ?
(b) Write about CRT screens for display in radar systems. (Jan. 2010)
(a) Receiver protectors (b) Passive TR limiter (c) Low noise front ends. (Jan. 10)
13. Explain the following:
(i) Branch type duplexer. (ii) Balanced type duplexer.(iii) Receiver protectors. (May/June 2009)
14. Explain the operation of branch type duplexer with neat sketch. (May/June 09)
15. (a) Write notes on (i) noise figure (ii) noise temperature
(b) Explain any two types of mixers. (May/June 2009)
16. (a) What is low noise front end? What are its applications.
(b) Explain the following:
(i) Branch type duplexer. (ii) Balanced type duplexer. (May/June 2009)
17. (a) Explain the principle behind the operation of duplexer and receiver protectors
(b) Explain how a circulator can be utilized for a radar receiver protection.
(c) Define noise figure and noise temperature of a receiver system. (Nov 2008)
18. Write notes on the following:
(a) Displays for visual presentation of radar echo signal. (b) Radiation patterns and feed arrangements for array antennas in a radar system. (November 2008)
19. Describe any two types of duplexers used in radar receiver. (November 2008)
20. Write notes on the following:
(a) Visual Displays to view radar echo signals in all types of radar systems.
(b) Applications, advantages and limitations of phased array antennas in a radar system. (November 2008)
21. (a) Define noise figure and equivalent noise temperature of a radar receiver.
(b) A radar receiver is connected to a 50 ohm resistance antenna that has an equivalent noise resistance of 30 ohm. Calculate the noise figure of the receiver and the equivalent noise temperature of the receiver.
(c) Describe a method for beam steering of a phased array antennas. (Nov 08)
22. (a) Describe briefly various visual displays to view radar echo signals in radar systems.
(b) Explain the necessity of a matched filter in a radar receiver to improve its signal-to-noise ratio based on the frequency response characteristics of the matched filter. (November 2008)
23. (a) With the help of necessary block diagram explain the operation of an MTI radar system with a power amplifier in the transmitter.
(b) Explain the necessity of a matched filter in a radar receiver to improve its signal-to-noise ratio based on the frequency response characteristics of the matched filter. (November 2008)
24. (a) Describe the principle behind the operation of phased array antenna in a radar system. (b) Substantiate the requirement of duplexers in efficient radar systems. Describe the operation of Branch and Balanced type duplexers with necessary diagrams. (November 2008)
25. Write notes on the following:
(a) Beam steering and variations in beam width with variations in steering angle of an antenna array system. (b) Advantages, limitations and applications of antenna arrays in radar systems. (November 2008)
26. Write short notes on :
(a) Aperture illumination and efficiency of radar antennas. (b) Loss in gain of cosecant squared antennas. (c) Beam steering and phased arrays
(d) P – Scope display (May 2008 & April/May 2008)
27. (a) List out the different types of displays used for radar applications, and their characteristics.
(b) Three network units, each of 6 dB noise figure and 10 dB, 6 dB and 3 dB gains respectively are cascaded. Determine the overall noise figure of the system. (May 2008 & April/May 2008)
28. (a) Define the noise figure for a radar receiver, and obtain an expression for the noise figure for 3 networks in cascade.
(b) Explain the functioning and characteristics of PPI display. (April/May 2008)

3 thoughts on “300+ TOP RADAR SYSTEMS Questions and Answers pdf UNIT WISE”

1. Manju says:

Please send me to mail id

2. sayed says:

good job